Holding Time In Your Hands


What, exactly, is time? A dictionary might define time as continued progress through existence including events from the past, present and future. Or, it might describe time as a form of measurement. But either way, time is not physical. You know, meaning that it has no mass. In other words, it’s not matter that you can hold in your hands, right? Um, the gringa says prepare to have your minds blown. Physicists have gone and done it again. They have created a time crystal. What the heck?


How is a crystal time? Have you ever looked at a crystal under a microscope? Well, check out these images depicting different crystals under a microscopes:


What interests physicists in crystals and how they can be seen as “time” are the repeating patterns and symmetry, called lattices. What is even more interesting is that sometimes crystals will repeat a pattern in several direction yet opt out of other directions. Then there is the curious thing scientists call “symmetry breaking”. That is when there is disruption in a crystal’s spatial symmetry. The reason these unexpected occurrences happen is because a crystal doesn’t exert the same amount of energy in expanding and forming itself in those areas of anomalies.


In case you didn’t catch that “exert the same amount of energy” phrase, let the gringa draw your attention to that. Because that is the most amazing thing about crystals. Because they use energy to grow, a crystal is not just some dead lump of rock. It’s actually a living organic object. Granted, it’s at the lowest rung of the ladder where energy state beings exist, but, in a sense, a crystal is very much “alive”. But what’s that got to do with time?


Well, if a crystal’s physical aspect of symmetry can be seen and disrupted, albeit with a microscope, physicists want to know if a crystal’s temporal symmetry can be made manifest. In other words, convert time into a form of matter that can be touched, seen or held in the hand. Say what?!! Yeah, we’re not talking watch or clock here. We are talking the real, ambiguous, invisible concept of TIME blowing all of our minds by becoming visible and physical.


According to physicists, it’s already been done. The concept is to arrange a bunch of ions in a ring. Then they need to be cooled to bring their energy down to the lowest state possible. Theoretically, this will result in an unbroken ring of ions that are perfectly still.


Now, if the symmetry of the ring is broken, time is disrupted. That is done by rotating the ring. A turn. Kind of like how an orbit around a star marks time for a planet. But, with a crystal, the energy of this rotation can’t be extracted. It has to be conserved in order for temporal symmetry to occur, meaning time repeating itself in consistent cycles. Now, this is the theory. It sounds neat and tidy. Real life is not so simple.


When breaking things down to the quantum level, scientists find that time kind of doesn’t exist. The quantum world doesn’t care about time. When ions are cooled down in a ring on the quantum level, instead of being stationary they spin around and interact. The gringa supposes being friendly in the quantum world is more important than worrying about whether or not you’re late for a meeting. 


So, these cooled, social quantum particles kind of smear themselves about throughout space, willy-nilly, where ever they please. But scientists have discovered that certain things can provoke certain actions, allowing scientists to predict where a quantum particle might show up. This is called “Anderson Localization”, a discovery made in the 1950s.


Scientists today have discovered a particular chain of quantum particles that stick together in their ring pattern. These particles have a magnetization that can be affected by lasers to create certain rates of oscillation. This allowed scientists to measure rates of interaction between the spinning crystals. The scientists zapping these magnetized crystals left them alone to evolve on their own for awhile. They discovered that interactions began occurring at double the rate as before. Because there was nothing driving the particles to interact, since they were being left alone, the only explanation then was that the symmetry of time had been broken. Thus, a time crystal had been created.


It sounds like a lot of hoo-hah to the gringa. What’s the point? What does this mean? Does it have any usefulness? It doesn’t even sound like any of this makes sense. Maybe understanding the properties of this laser affected crystal will help the dear reader and the gringa understand the significance.

  • Changing the frequency of the laser did not change the frequency of the time crystal (remember, all energy beings, humans included, emanate a frequency, including crystals)
  • The crystal’s patterns do not repeat in space, but in time.
  • Once zapped with the laser, the crystals remain in perpetual motion yet contain no energy, which violates one of the fundamental law of physics. Thus time crystals are matter with no energy equilibrium (you know that old physics rule about for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction). Think of it like someone coming along and giving you a push in a swing and you never stop going back and forth.

So, on its most basic level, a time crystal is a form of matter that contains movement that is created without energy. The hope among scientists is that time crystals can become a never-ending energy source and the energy of time crystals can be harvested to power quantum computers. The gringa thinks, then, that “time” crystal is a misleading name. It should be something related to the perpetual energy aspect. Something like “crystal dynamo”. But nobody asked me.

The gringa would really appreciate it, however, if she could use one to power her air conditioner during the Gulf Coast summer season. My electric bills are KILLING me!

Sources: 


Technology Review


Popular Mechanics


APS Physics


Berkeley


Futurism


IFL Science


images:  Xfoor News


Pinterest


K Glyphics


https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photography-microscopic-view-sucrose-crystals-polarized-light-colorful-recrystallized-table-sugar-crossed-polarizers-image36097622


Video Credit:  Seeker

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Just Say What You Mean, OKAY ALREADY!


One would think that if they heard the words “empty space” that the space mentioned is actually empty. Well, it’s stuff like this that makes science so darn confusing sometimes. You see, empty space is not REALLY empty after all. The gringa really wishes that scientists would just name stuff better, to actually mean what they say. Why couldn’t they just call it “NOT so empty space”?

Research performed by Italian and Polish scientists at the European Southern Observatory has concluded that when light is emitted by a neutron star that is quite dense (kind of like the scientists who create terms like “empty space”) as well as strongly magnetized, strange quantum happenings occur. The light becomes polarized which means that the space around that star is not “empty”. Is it a vacuum? Well, the gringa supposes that’s a misleading term as well because if it really was a vacuum it would be empty, right? Also, if there was nothing there then nothing would be going on. However, there is most CERTAINLY something going on in the not so empty “empty space” surrounding highly magnetized neutron stars. That something is called “vacuum” birefringence.

The gringa’s next question, quite naturally, then, is, “What the heck is vacuum birefringence?” What comes to mind for the gringa’s limited capabilities is the fringe of my rug re-emerging after being sucked up by the vacuum cleaner. Is that what scientists are talking about? Does the neutron star suck up some energy to produce the light then spit it back out into what was once “empty space”? Is vacuum birefringence the “exhaust fumes” of light?

Nope. That’s not at all what happens. Empty space acts more like a prism than a vacuum. The gringa would like to know, then, why the scientists didn’t call this phenomena something like “prismatic filling of otherwise empty space”. Good grief. That would explain everything! Anyway, what actually happens is the not so empty “empty space” surrounding a highly magnetized neutron star actually has all kinds of particles that can appear or disappear as they please. If the neutron star is heavily magnetized, the magnetic effect enhances these particles as the light that passes through them becomes polarized. This means that the light we see coming out of empty space does not look exactly the same as when it was created and emitted by the star.

The gringa’s next question then, quite naturally of course, is, “Is this a big deal? What’s the point? Does this information have any practical purpose for mankind or is it just one of those curious and interesting facts?” Okay, actually the gringa asked 3 questions, but surely, by now, my dear readers will humor my insatiable curiosity and long-windedness.

What it means for the science world is being able to more accurately understand the observations of stars as well as build better long-range telescopes. By understanding neutron stars better, mankind can better understand all laws of nature.

The gringa must then ask another question, “How, specifically, does that help mankind?” Well, mankind’s ancient ancestors often created superstitious or religious explanations for natural laws that they didn’t understand. We can all read historical texts or even current news headlines to realize that superstition and religion can sometimes bring out the worst in mankind. However, as science has exposed certain beliefs to be in error, mankind has been able to advance civilization toward better living conditions and more humane treatment of one another. If studying the not-so-empty space of neutron stars contributes to creating world peace, then the gringas asks one more questions, “Where can I contribute and how much do you need?”

Sources

www.sciencedaily.com

phys.org

plus.maths.org

Image Credit: www.orionsarm.com

 

A One Way Ticket To Tomorrow – Time Travel


Ever really screwed things up and wanted a do-over? Yeah, the gringa does that all the time. That’s what makes time travel so appealing. But is it possible? Theoretically, sure it’s possible, but only if you want to see the future. To start the day all over again in order to get it right the second time around means travelling faster than light and that, theoretically, is impossible. But, actually, that’s good news. That means a spiteful ex can’t travel back in time and take out your grandfather, thus wiping out your future existence. It also means that adventurers who travel to the future have to stay there (maybe). For a trip to tomorrow, it’s actually relatively easy, according to scientific formulas (although no one’s actually done it yet, I think).

You see, if a person hopped on board their spaceship and zipped away into the cosmos at even a fraction of lightspeed, for a journey of say a year or two, they would return to an Earth that had aged perhaps by decades. So, technically, the galactic pioneers traveled to the future. But Einstein offered another option to travel to the future in the blink of an eye, wormholes.

A wormhole is a time tunnel that connects different parts of the universe. By using the wormhole as a direct route across the universe, rather than taking the long route of flying through the curved mass of space, a person would emerge, within moments, in a completely different time zone, perhaps an entire era altogether, hundreds of years in the future. The furthest a person could then go back in time would be to simply use the wormhole to return to the point they started from. However, a Caltech physicist by the name of Kip Thorne believes that quantum theory suggests that once a person traveled through a wormhole it would collapse behind them. A wormhole to the future might be a one way ticket to tomorrow.

So, if you want to have a time traveling adventure, you just have to find a wormhole. Or go to China. Yep. That’s what the gringa said. Go to China. Interesting reports have been in the news for a few years now about a time travel tunnel in China. Located in Guizhou Province, time travelers can break all the rules and travel back in time. You don’t even need a spaceship. You can use the ancient technology of cars.

It only takes, technically, about five minutes to travel the 400 meter length of the tunnel. However, when drivers emerge on the other side of the tunnel their electronic devices indicate that they have traveled back in time about one hour. However, time is a jealous mistress. It seems to not appreciate being lost and chases down evaders like a jilted lover turned crazed stalker. Once people travel some distance from the tunnel their lost hour catches up with them.

What the heck is happening here? It’s a mystery. One that is absolutely adored by science fiction fans, conspiracy theorists and alien abduction proponents. However, China is not a fan of wacky explanations. They have offered a few boring theories as to why this is happening:

  • A transmitter in the tunnel is resetting everyone’s electronic clocks which reset once again when they receive new GPS signals from a different transmitter after emerging from the tunnel.
  • A localized magnetic anomaly messing about with electronic devices

The gringa doesn’t really care why. It seems harmless and loads of fun. The gringa would like to go back and forth several times, perhaps hundreds of times, maybe thousands just to see what might happen. Maybe I’ll lose a wrinkle or two.

 

Sources: www.physics.org

www.express.co.uk

Image:  i.ytimg.com

The Infinite Possibilities of the Unobserved


Quantum physics is, perhaps, the craziest thing for the gringa to try to understand. Recently the results of some very interesting time experiments have been publicized when a physicist, Yakir Aharonov, published a paper on the curious things he has discovered. Since it all seems utterly impossible and to simply state the results would sound like the ravings of a gringa gone mad, I will begin at the beginning and explain the “double slit” experiment.

Tiny pieces of matter (such as atoms, atom sized objects, electrons or photons) are propelled toward a screen containing two slits. A camera is set up on the back side of the screen which records where the “bits” land.

Sometimes a scientist will close one of the slits and the camera will predict the expected pattern of where the bits will land as they shoot through the remaining open slit. (Sounds pretty simple so far.)

When both slits remain open, something called “interference pattern” occurs. That means that instead of acting like projectiles shooting forward in a straight path, the bits begin to behave in wave-like patterns (They begin to behave unpredictably. The bits is misbehavin’!).

When bits begin misbehaving in a wave-like interference pattern, crazier things can happen. A single photon goes through both slits at the same time. In other words, a bit interferes with itself. And sometimes the bit doesn’t go through either slit. What occurs to the bit on a quantum level is that the bit begins expressing a “wave” of potential possibilities. It actually expresses all the possibilities and that is why it seems to be interfering with itself. The bit gets shot toward the slits and as it approaches it says to itself, “Well, I could go through the right slot.” (which it does)  Then it says, “Or, I could go through the left slot.” (which it does) Then it says, “Or I could do neither.” (which it does) And it performs all three available options at the exact same time.

This seems impossible but Aharonov’s documented experiment proves that it does happen. What the heck does this mean for humans? Why would something like this matter about matter?

Before the gringa answers those questions, let me share another conclusion of the experiment that will blow your mind. As soon as this non-sentient (is it?) bit of matter realizes it is being observed, the wave-like effect of expressing all possibilities coalesces into one path. When the bit realizes it is being watched and measured, it makes a choice and sticks with it. Just like how someone misbehavin’ straightens up when they realize someone is watching. (Matter has a naughty streak).

Conclusion #1 – Unwatched matter enjoys every possibility of existence.

Conclusion #2 – Once matter is observed, it selects a single possibility of existence and maintains that choice.

Conclusion #3 – The simple act of observation affects how matter behaves.

Conclusion #4 – The reality that we see potentially does not exist once we are no longer looking at it.

The consciousness of humans and animals may be responsible for creating our world as we know it. Subatomic particles are responding to the visual cues of humans and animals to create the world of matter surrounding us. Although it feels and seems very real it is an optical illusion of our own creation because subatomic particles are choosing one state of existence in response to being aware of our collective consciousness’ being aware of their existence.

On a much deeper level, quantum science can then prove that the conscious efforts of humans can then shape the future and reshape the past. But that is fodder for another interesting, mind-boggling gringa discussion.

The gringa’s dear readers can view a Dr. Quantum’s video on the double slit experiment below:

 

Source: http://www.cosmicscientist.com

Image Credit: http://www.in5d.com

 

Hello Over There


Science is fascinating although there is much of it that is way beyond the gringa’s limited understanding. I guess that’s why I am a big fan of science fiction. It doesn’t matter if it makes sense or not, it is pretend science for the sake of entertainment.  However, it seems that sometimes the two intersect and then I just don’t know what to think.

I have often watched science fiction movies, or read science fiction novels, that were set in a parallel universe. Now, some physicists have revealed that the existence of a universe parallel to our own may not be a fictional idea. It may be real!

They call this the “Many Interacting World” (MIW) theory. And it means much more than just the existence of multiple worlds. It contends that there are actually multiple universes and that they interact with one another on a quantum physics level.  So, then I only have to understand what quantum physics is!

The simplest definition of quantum physics explains that it is a branch of science that studies the behavior of matter like atoms and photons. So, basically the MIW theory premise is that atoms and the minutest particles of parallel universes interact with one another.  So, basically, everyone and everything here on Earth is being touched, albeit invisibly, by another world.

Now, consider the gringa’s September 2, 2015, post, “What’s The Matter With Dark Matter”. There we learned that dark matter is invisible and passing through Earth all the darn time. This is pretty much the same concept except rather than just passing through and minding their own business, parallel worlds may, at times, actually interact with our own.

This theory has been developed through performing mathematical calculations as well as understanding how energy waves behave. You see, sometimes strange things, inexplicable according to our known scientific understanding of matter, occur when messing about with quantum mechanics’ experiments. When applying typical cause and effect principals that work on Earthly matter to a quantum mechanics’ experiment, the expected result does not occur. The oddities are explained as being due to the possibility of a parallel universe interacting in a subtle and non-detectable way to affect the outcome of the experiment.

The gringa wonders if this is a form of communication. What if one of these parallel universes is further advanced than our own and is aware of not only our existence, but also of our quantum physics experimentation? What if they observe these experiments (through dark matter spy molecules zipping about unbeknownst to us lower developed humans) then poke their nose in and interfere in such a way as to leave us scratching our heads, wondering what the heck just happened so that we will suspect outside interference from another world. They could be trying to get our attention! And scientists are definitely on high alert.

In the 1950s Hugh Everett, an American physicist, explained that quantum particles are not limited to a single state. At the same time, they can be in two states. That would be like saying, at the very same time, your stomach is empty yet also full. He called this the “many worlds” theory and suggested that quantum particles occupy two places at the same time, co-existing in two different realities. This means that, for each particle:

  • A single version of reality could branch out into infinite branches of alternate realities.
  • An alternate reality is a separate existence.

The point of difference between the “many worlds” theory and the MIW theory is that the “many worlds” idea premises that individual realities are not able to interact with one another while MIW speculates that parallel universes overlap one another and can influence each other.

The MIW theory claims three critical points:

  • There are possibly an infinite number of universes and some may be virtually identical.
  • All universes are equally real. (Imagine, another gringa out there! I wonder if she is my arch-nemesis and an evil tyrant? Maybe she’s a ballerina! With my luck she’s probably a chicken sexer… Yes, that is actually a job at chicken farms!)
  • There is a magnetic law of repulsion that prevents universes from interacting. (Hence the theory that the other gringa is a “repulsive” evil tyrant.)

Which brings me to ask if meditative practices that create altered forms of consciousness are putting people into contact with beings just as real as us but in a parallel universe, rather than in contact with a spiritual being. Could the MIW theory solve many religious questions about what exactly is an angel, deity or jinn? Could they actually have been beings, just as real as you or I, who existed in a parallel universe that was more highly advanced and had the technology to communicate with our universe? Could they have stopped in to say “hello”, saw what a mess we had made of things, sent messengers for centuries to try to teach us to be better, then finally gave up on us altogether?

Are they spying on every single one of us all the time? Brings the concept of “personal space” to a whole new level. The gringa will never again know the satisfaction of picking my nose in the privacy of my own powder room. Overindulging in an insomniac episode of chocolate while everyone else sleeps will never again seem a secret victory. Who knows, we could all be the reality TV stars of another world!

 

Sources: www.themindunleashed.org, www.mnn.com, www.phys.org

Image credit:  http://www.wn.com

 

 

 

Quantum Science Stuff


What word SCREAMS fascinating, mystifying science? Quantum. Webster’s dictionary says, with regard to physics, quantum means the “smallest amount of any form of energy (such as light)”.  NASA is into all sorts of quantum science stuff. Let’s take a stroll through some of NASA’s quantum interests.

NASA has a quantum computing lab. The gringa asks, “What does it do? What does it do?” Located at the Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) facility in California, NASA’s Quantum Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (QuAIL) is studying the computer of the future and how this technology is relevant to the future of mankind. Collaborating with Google and the Universities Space Research Association (USRA), technology is being developed to not only optimize existing computer technology, but to go beyond and create computers that can do what was before considered impossible.

Again, the gringa asks, “Like what?! Like what?!” (You can picture my little dance, hopping from one foot to another, flinging my hands up and down, as I impatiently ask this question). Well, how about “quantum teleportation”? The gringa says, “WHAT?! Are you KIDDING ME?” (now hopping straight up and down on both feet).  The cute little cartoon above illustrates how the technology works.

If visuals aren’t your thing, the gringa will try to convey the concept. Imagine you have eyes that can see things as tiny as itty, bitty particles, which is what makes up everything in our world. Now, consider that there are two particles that, although separated by an incredible distance, they behave as if they are connected (kind of like a married couple). This is called entanglement (yeah, like I said, kinda like a married couple).

What scientists have done with this concept is teleported information about a particle of light over fifteen miles of optical fiber to a crystal “memory bank”. Voila! Quantum teleportation.

However, the gringa is no longer jumping up and down. I’m scratching my head and thinking, “So what!” I mean, it doesn’t really sound like a big deal. It doesn’t even sound like real teleportation to me. I mean, it traveled through a conduit, the optical fiber. I’ve seen enough episodes of Star Trek to know real teleportation means you simply vaporize, POOF, and rematerialize somewhere else. What a let down.

The gringa really doesn’t want to get shot through an optical fiber skinnier than a human hair to make a quick trip to the mall. It would make me feel like a drive-thru bank deposit. I was really looking forward to the POOF and re-materialization thing. I mean, you could strike a pose and really create a fantastic entrance wherever you went.

The “real-life” application of this technology is that it has potential to be used in cryptography. However, not only will it create secure information transmission between computers here on Earth, but also between Earth and spacecrafts. This would be done by imprinting two systems upon each other so that even when they are separated they behave as one system and, thus, unhackable (is that a word?).

So, with a quantum computer system Astronaut Annie can send a love note from Mars to Hubby Harry back on Earth and it would be as securely private as if they were writing love notes back and forth on the same pad of paper across the breakfast table from one another. Okay, the gringa does have to admit that is entirely cool. Hackers terrify me. I’m always afraid they’ll hack into my bank account and get my last five dollars (that’s usually all that’s ever in there, except for payday and maybe one day after, but, yeah, the rest of the time about five bucks).

Now, how this works is like this:  Alice has a yellow photon. She wants Bob to have one just like it. Their friend, Charlie, sends them each a blue photon (these photons are “entangled”, hence the same color).  Now, the rule of entanglement is since the objects are connected, anything done to one affects the other in the same way, as if they were one object. Alice smashes her blue and yellow photons together until the yellow residue dominates the blue. Now, Bob likes the color yellow better than blue so Alice wants to help him change the color of his photon. So, she teleports the information of the color yellow to Bob’s crystal memory bank and the color information imprints on Bob’s photon which now turns yellow.

So, in a nutshell, quantum teleportation is not anything like Star Trek’s device. Does that mean Star Trek technology is impossible? Um, this is NASA, NOTHING is impossible! The concept of the Star Trek transporter is that it changes matter into a signal that can be transmitted to another location and reappears. What this requires is an empty vessel of a corresponding shape waiting on the other end to receive the quantum state of transported information. So, transport a human body? Probably not. However, lay down on a transport bed and beam your consciousness into, say, a robotic version of yourself, could be.

If technology is developed to transport matter through space, what about transporting through time? Is time travel possible? Nope, not unless we get us some wormholes. And, even then it is still only a theory.

Communication and transporting matter is not the only technology that has something “quantum” about it. In medicine there is a device called the Quantum Resonance Spectrometer (QRS). It gathers cellular information from a human body which can be used to predict when a disease may strike based on an analysis of cellular change. The hope is that as this technology is perfected it will be used in preventative medicine. Japanese, Taiwanese and Chinese hospitals are already using the technology in studies of cancer, cardiovascular and heart diseases.

How about quantum energy? Can we say good-bye to oil, coal, and wind power? Maybe. NASA is developing the “quantum dot” solar cell that is flexible, lightweight and absorbs light as if it were a mini-black hole on a sunshine diet. Because of the abundance and availability of solar energy in outer space, imagine the prospects! NASA wants to use these babies on rovers and habitats as well as auxiliary power sources.

The quantum dot not only reduces weight because of it’s tiny, microscopic size that efficiently produces energy, but it also lowers the cost of space travel. The cells can be produced in a process much like ink jet printing. Large batteries that take up a lot of cargo space can become a thing of the past. Can you imagine if cars no longer needed a gas tank? No more oilfields! Hoorah! Hoorah! What is NOT to love about this technology!

So, what is the next thing on the horizon with “quantum science stuff”? How about a world-wide quantum network? If we thought the invention of the Internet was an amazing thing, the gringa says, “We ain’t seen nothin’ yet!”

 

Source & Photo Credit: http://www.nasa.gov