Good Guy/Bad Guy – Who Needs ’em?


The good guy/bad guy narrative is a literary classic. It seems rooted in religious beliefs of good and evil and non-religious esoteric beliefs of Yin & Yang. For every good guy there seems to be a universal need for a counterbalancing bad guy. Is this realistic? Is this necessary? The gringa would like to believe that bad guys and evil are simply obsolete. I mean, haven’t we reached that point yet in the evolution of humanity that we don’t need the contrast of the bad in order to recognize and appreciate what is good? And if we are basing our good guy/bad guy theory on ancient teachings that use real world examples of good and evil, what if those past histories are incorrect? After all, aren’t historical records always skewed according to the perspective of the author, whether they be the victor or the vanquished?

Take, for example, one of the earliest examples of good guy/bad guy: Egypt and the ancient Israelites. According to the religious teachings of Judaism and Christianity, it is widely accepted that the Egyptians were the “bad guys”, enslaving the Hebrew people who were eventually chosen by God to be the “good guys”. However, historians and archaeologists who specialize in Egyptian history, not to mention Egyptians themselves, argue that this is an unfair depiction of the relationship between the ancient Egyptian empires and the surrounding less powerful nations and peoples. Can science and historians reveal the truth?

David Wolpe is a rabbinical scholar who argues that archaeological evidence simply does not support the biblical notion that ancient Egypt practiced widespread enslavement of the Hebrew people, or any people for that matter. But just because evidence hasn’t been found doesn’t mean that it doesn’t exist. So let’s look at the historical facts that are known and the science of archaeology to understand these facts.

1700 B.C.

Before their enslavement, the Hebrew people migrated to Egypt to survive a famine. The biblical record maintains that they were there for several generations. There is basically a 300 year gap between the appearance of the Joseph story and Moses.

1400 B.C.

The earliest possible date suggested by the Jewish and Christian religious texts for the enslavement of the Hebrew people by Egypt would have been 1400 B.C., in other words, about 300 years after the era of the pyramids.

So what was going on in Egypt from 1700 B.C. to 1400 B.C.? Why would Egypt need widespread enslavement if the grand monuments had already been constructed?

14th Dynasty

Egypt’s 14th Dynasty ruled anywhere from 1725-1650 B.C. or 1805-1650 B.C. depending on which historian you talk to. Regardless, this would have been the dynasty in power when Jewish and Christian texts claim that Joseph took his family to Egypt in order to survive the region’s famine. His family would grow to become the Hebrew people. Does the known history and archaeological science support that a famine occurred in the region during this time? What kind of science might be used to find out?

Interestingly enough, an examination of pollen buried deeply in Egyptian soil around the Nile reveals that a devastating drought occurred at this time in history. This region was dependent upon the annual floods of the Nile Delta to enrich their agricultural lands. A drought would have, indeed, resulted in a famine.

So what would life have been like as an immigrant in an ancient Egyptian kingdom?

Archaeology reveals that rulers during the 14th dynasty had names that indicated Canaanite or Western Semitic origins, with one king and queen with Nubian names. So, it seems that at this time Egypt was an ethnically mixed bag. These kings and queens would be involved in conflicts with neighboring rivals to control the strategic area of the fertile Nile Delta. Control the agriculture, control the food. Eventually a prolonged period of famine and disease weakened the kingdom which then fell to a takeover by the Hyksos. The Hyksos takeover would have occurred after the suggested time of the Hebrew Exodus story.

So, pre-Hyksos Egypt was noted by industrious multi-ethnic rulers who jealously defended the Nile Delta with military might and concentrated on building extravagant monuments to demonstrate their success as rulers. Rulers during the time period 1800 B.C. to 1650 B.C. contain a series of non-contested figures as well as controversial names:

  • Yakbim Sekhaenre (contested): 1805 B.C. – 1780 B.C.
  • Ya’ammu Nubwoserre (contested): 1780 B.C. – 1770 B.C.
  • Qareh Khawoserre (contested): 1770 B.C. – 1760 B.C.
  • Ammu Ahotepre (contested): 1760 B.C. – 1745 B.C.
  • Sheshi Maaibre (contested): 1745 B.C. – 1705 B.C.
  • Nehesy Aasehre (uncontested): 1705 B.C., name means “The Nubian” inscribed on 2 known monuments.
  • Khakherewre (uncontested): 1705 B.C.
  • Nebefawre (uncontested): 1704 B.C.
  • Sehebre (uncontested): 1702-1699 B.C.
  • Merdjefare (uncontested): 1699 B.C.
  • Sewadjkare III (uncontested): 1698 B.C.
  • Nebdjefare (uncontested): 1697-1694 B.C.
  • After this there is a list of names established as Egyptian kings of the 14th Dynasty but without designated dates for their reigns.

What do we know about these kings and the conditions of their kingdoms that might have any affect on the good guy/bad guy designations in the Jewish and Christian religious texts?

  • Majority of the cartouches excavated refer to each reigning king as “son of Ra” in addition to whatever the king’s individual name was.
  • During Sheshi’s reign 1745-1705 B.C., seals with his provenance have been discovered in archaeological digs in Egypt, Nubia and Canaan suggesting that his kingdom enjoyed widespread trade and relations outside the immediate borders of Egypt. Some scholars believe this to be the Sheshai mentioned in Jewish and Christian religious texts as being of the Anakim of Hebron when the Hebrews conquered the land of Canaan.
  • If Sheshi had good trade relations with the people of Canaan and was the ruler of Egypt when the Hebrew people conquered Canaan, it would only be natural that Egypt might then take a posture of hostility toward the Hebrew people.

It is then possible that the ancient Hebrew people were not victims of the ancient Egyptians. They may have been viewed as nomadic invaders who disrupted trade with allies. It reminds the gringa of European history and stories of Viking raiders. The Hebrew people also practiced a foreign religion that was monotheistic. It is easy to see even today how religion can play a big part in hostilities between cultures that can lead up to oppression and even war.

I mean, think about it. The Hebrew people first show up needing a place to survive a famine. Egypt graciously takes them in. Then, after weathering the storm, growing fat and happy as well as increasing in population and herds who need grazing land, the Hebrews, within one generation, rise up and attack a trade ally, Canaan, a rich land for Hebrew herds of sheep and goats. The Hebrew people take over the nation by slaughtering, according to the biblical account, every man, woman and child because God “told them so”. The gringa can imagine the horror of Egypt at these actions. I can also understand how the polytheistic Egyptians would decide that the single God of the Hebrews was a backstabbing baby-killer. No suprise then, that there would be no love loss between Egyptians and Hebrews that continued to live together in Egypt. Hebrews were probably eyed suspiciously and discriminated against, though probably not enslaved.

These resentments, deep in the heart of the Egyptians who saw their trade allies vanquished by people they considered to be dangerous heretics, would have most likely been an attitude that would have been passed down for generations. Just as politicians have used such emotions and history to stir up support for their cause throughout my own country’s history, the gringa thinks it is very possible the same type of politics were at play when it came time for the Hebrew people to rise up, claim oppression, revolt and march out of town. They just seemed to forget that they started it all.

The natural result would be for the Hebrew people to villainize Egypt, victimize themselves, then paint a heroic picture of their escape to inspire their own people and motivate them for noble purposes. On the other hand, the ancient Egyptians would have historians creating records for the pleasure of their rulers. They would depict their nation as benevolent and tolerant. Factions such as the immigrant, nomadic, heretical Hebrews would be painted as radical rebels stirring up unrest and not wanting to work.

So, in the end, the gringa does believe that, much as I would like to think that humanity has evolved to the point where we no longer need the good guy/bad guy narrative because people know better now, that’s simply not the case. As long as we have politicians who have something to gain by exploiting the differences in groups of people, we will always have the good guy/bad guy narrative. But it is a human creation, not a spiritual reality. And for kids who adore science as much as they adore truth, the science involved in archaeology can help resolve many divisive differences that exist today because of politicized religious teachings of yesterday. Become an archaeologist and change the world.

Sources:

www.biblicalarchaeology.org

www.ancientegypt.co.uk

wikipedia.org

Image Credit:  flashtrafficblog.files.wordpress.com

 

Advertisements

Jealousy, Vandalism, And Pharaoh’s Helicopter


So, did Egyptian Pharaoh Seti I have a helicopter? What about a submarine? Did he have one of those, too? Did he get them as gifts from visiting extra-terrestrials? Could Seti I have been an extra-terrestrial himself? Was he stranded on Earth, crash landing his spaceship that was crippled but managed to salvage some really cool toys? No. Seti I did not have a helicopter or submarine. What he did have was a jealous son who vandalized his tomb.

Pharaoh’s had big egos. Their monuments alone are a testament to that fact. Often, one pharaoh would be so nasty and jealous that he would attempt to erase the historical footprint left behind of a previous regent, like how Thutmosis III erased Queen Hatsheput from the annals of Egyptian history and destroyed her statues and monuments.

You can see more handiwork of one pharaoh stealing another’s glory in the temple at Karnak.

ramesses I cartouche in karnak temple

So the naughty grandson vandalized the Karnak Temple, altering the carving of the seated man to change the signature from granddad, Ramesses I, to himself, Ramesses II. Thus, #2 “steals” credit from granddad and gets all the glory for the construction of the Karnak Temple. And this wasn’t the only monument Ramesses II stole from granddad. Since the naughty boy’s dad is Seti I, and the cheeky lad was rogue enough to steal glory from granddad, does the gringa believe he will stop there or also try to get credit for what dear ol’ dad did as well? What do you think, dear reader?

And that brings us to the next piece of evidence ufologists and ancient alien theorists use to prove extra-terrestrial contact or hybridization of extra-terrestrials with ancient Egyptians… the Seti I cartouche at the Temple of Seti I at Abydos:

4

Yes, there are carved images that distinctly look like a helicopter, submarine and spaceship. What the heck? How in the world did something like THAT get carved in a temple built in 1300BC?!!!  It seems that Ramesses II “photoshopped” ancient Egyptian style.

Well, let’s take a peek at the controversial cartouche of Seti I from the perspective of hieroglypic experts who see through the clever photoshop of Ramesses II and describe it as a Ramesses II cartouche superimposed over a Seti I cartouche:

5

Now, the gringa digs into her little bag of tricks, children’s books, to evaluate the hieroglyphics. I’m no expert so a children’s book is good enough for me.  According to my children’s hieroglyphic alphabet and numbers, I can identify some of the symbols:

Examining the underlying Seti I cartouche it’s easy to see the symbol for the number 3 used 3 times, and the symbols for the phonetic sounds “T”, “R”:

hiero number - Copyheiro alpha - Copyheiro alpha - Copy (2)

Examining the overlaying Ramesses II cartouche the symbols can be seen for the phonetic sounds “C” or “X” (depending on perspective), “F” or “V”, and what is either the number 100 or phonetic sounds for “U” or “W”.

heiro alpha - Copy (3)heiro alpha - Copy (4)heiro alpha - Copy (5)heiro alpha - Copy (6)hiero number - Copy (2)heiro alpha - Copy (8)heiro alpha - Copy (7)

Now, the gringa admits that she is no qualified Egyptian heiroglyphics expert. However, I believe that, considering Ramesses II’s reputation as a monument graffiti artist, and the simplistic bit of heiroglyphic study the gringa’s simple mind is capable of, I’m leaning toward a cartouche defacement theory. The gringa thinks that it is more plausible that Ramesses II superimposed his own signature over his father’s so he could claim credit for the construction of the Temple at Abydos than that an ancient Egyptian pharaoh had an enormous limestone garage housing a spaceship and helicopter and also kept a submarine docked in the Nile.

Sources & Image Credit:

http://www.ducksters.com

http://www.raincool.blogspot.com

http://www.hallofthegods.org

http://www.geocities.com

http://www.ufocom.eu

wikipedia.org

 

 

What The Heck Happened In 1480BC?!


Ufologists and Ancient Alien theorists use as supporting evidence for their beliefs something called the “Tulli Papyrus”. They claim it is an ancient Egyptian record of a mass sighting of UFOs. Is the translation accurate? Is the artifact genuine? Authentic? True? Real? Well, dear reader, please join the gringa in the discovery of what we can determine to be true.

The original document is alleged to be a record dating back to the era of the reign of Thutmose III which would be around 1480BC.  The gringa is then curious as to what else was going on in the world around that time. I mean, if extra-terrestrials were so interested in Earthlings, would they have only buzzed the pyramids? Were there any other curious civilizations that may have been worth a peek?

Earth, 1480BC or thereabouts 

  • 1575BC Baby Moses discovered and adopted by Hatsheput who later became Egyptian Queen of Thutmose II; Hatsheput ruled Egypt for 22 years after her husband’s death
  • 1504BC – 1492BC Egyptian wars conquering Nubia (area of Upper Nile to the Red Sea) and Levant (Eastern Mediterranean coastal regions)
  • 1500BC – Aryans establish the Vedic civilization in India (The Aryans, from central Asia, spoke an Indo-European language and brought a polytheistic religion and religious literature known as the Vedas)
  • 1500BC-1400BC – The Rigveda, a Vedic Sanskrit religious poem or hym, is composed; Battle of the 10 Kings: Battle memorialized in the Rigveda; Mumum Pottery Period of Korea begins centered around an Asian culture noted for its simple pottery, elaborate burials and agriculture of millet, beans and rice.
  • 1481BC – Lunar eclipse period Saros 43 begins. During this cycle (which lasts about 18 years) 85 lunar eclipses occurred within about 2 1/2 years with an average of about three eclipses monthly. The longest one lasted almost 2 hours, shortest one lasted about half an hour. During this cycle
  • 1480BC Egyptian Queen dies and is succeeded by her stepson/nephew Thutmosis III. In his hatred of her he destroys her monuments and erases her name from official records. He seeks to kill Moses, her adopted son, who escapes to the desert. Thutmosis III begins the expansion period, conquering Palestine & Syria, claiming geography from the Upper Nile to the Euphrates 

Ancient Egyptians were dedicated to keeping detailed written records. So what exactly did Thutmose III record on this “Tulli” papyrus? Where was this artifact found? What exactly was it? Who translated it? What does it mean? The gringa just has to know these things before I accept someone else telling me it’s a record of an ancient Egyptian pharaoh’s eyewitness account of UFO visitation.

In 1933 a fellow by the name of Alberto Tulli visited Cairo. He worked for the Vatican Museum in the department of Egyptian antiquities. So, he was on the hunt for something interesting for the museum. He visited an antique shop, which was common practice in the old days when searching for antiquities. Tomb raiding was still going on so artifacts from ancient tombs would be sold to antique shops by the sticky-fingered burglars of all things old.

Tulli found a document he wanted to buy but the price was too steep. So, he did the next best thing, he copied the text of the document. Yes, Tulli was a plagiarist. That’s one strike against him in the gringa’s book. The gringa says, “Uh oh. So, there is no original to compare the translation with. Mm hmm. Red flag of doubt number one raised quite high.” So, Tulli claims he copied down the original hieratic script which then would have been translated into hieroglyphics and then translated into the language of your choice. So, basically a third hand copy of a document of dubious existence. Many of the present translations in English, as well as other languages, are filled with gaps where it is obvious that content has been deleted and no explanation has been given.

Twenty years later Italian Prince Boris de Rachewiltz claimed to be in possession of the original document. He said that he found it among papers belonging to the now deceased Tulli. He appointed renowned Egyptologist Etienne Drioton with the task of translating and transcribing the original document. Drioton was an expert Egyptologist on staff at the Cairo Museum as well as author of his own independent research and work, often being consulted by others worldwide on ancient Egyptian history and translation.

Translation of the document revealed that nothing within it could designate it as originating with Thutmose III’s dynasty. Experts accept the credibility and quality of the translation, however and do not consider it to be a hoax. Although the document is called a papyrus, it is not actually a papyrus. The original document in Rachewiltz’ possession was only the “original” copy made by Tulli of the papyrus he claimed to have found in the antique store. So, that takes us back to the original dilemma of having nothing to authenticate what Tulli wrote down. The world has only Tulli’s claim that he copied these words from an authentic papyrus and the Prince’s claim that he had found it. So, what was it Tulli wrote down that is so sensational? I have chosen anthropologist R. Cedric Leonard’s translation because it is closer to modern English:

“In the year 22, of the third month of winter, sixth hour of the day  (big blank space)… among the scribes of the House of Life it was found that a strange Fiery Disk was coming in the sky. It had no head. The breath of its mouth emitted a foul odor. Its body was one rod in length and one rod in width. It had no voice. It came toward His Majesty’s house. Their hearts became confused through it, and they fell upon their bellies. They [went] to the king, to report it. His Majesty [ordered that] the scrolls [located] in the House of Life be consulted. His Majesty meditated on all these events which were now going on. 

After several days had passed, they became more numerous in the sky than ever. They shined in the sky more than the brightness of the sun, and extended to the limits of the four supports of heaven (big blank space)… Power was the position of the Fiery Disk. 

The army of the King looked on, with His Majesty in their midst. It was after the evening meal when the Disks ascended even higher in the sky to the south. Fish and other volatiles rained down from the sky: a marvel never before known since the foundation of the country. And His Majesty caused incense to be brought to appease the heart of Amun-Re, the god of the Two Lands. And it was [ordered] that the events [be recorded for] His Majesty in the Annals of the House of Life [to be remembered] for ever.” 

When the credibility of the Tulli papyrus was tested, investigation began by Gianfranco Nolli who was Inspector to Egyptian Vatican Museum. He reported that the Tulli Papyrus was not Vatican property and could offer no suggestion as to the original document’s location. Dr. Walter Ramberg, Scientific Attache with Rome’s U.S. Embassy responded that Tulli’s original copy was presumed to be among documents bequeathed to his brother, a priest, after his death. However, upon the death of Tulli’s brother, the document became lost as his belongings were eventually dispersed among family members.

So, an original copy of a presumed authentic antiquity does not even exist. The case grows even more tenuous. The only credibility for this testament now lies in the word of Prince de Rachelwitz who had the document translated by Drioton. So, the question now is, “Did the darn thing ever exist in the first place?”

Well, the gringa will give ol’ Rachelwitz and Tulli the benefit of the doubt and just assume that, once upon a time, that papyrus in the antique shop was the real deal. But when the gringa reads the translation, I don’t see images of UFOs. I see images of a comet.

Ancient Egyptians were master astronomers. Around 1450BC ancient Egyptians began using sundials and had been constructing sun-aligned temples since 2000BC. They were expert stargazers along with their Babylonian neighbors. The gringa believes they would know the difference between a mass sighting of UFOs and a comet. Please follow my trains of thought:

  • A strange Fiery Disk was coming in the sky…” A fireball is seen in the heavens approaching. It is described as a disk because, from the Egyptian’s vantage point, they could not tell that it was a sphere, only two dimensional, round and flat.
  • “It had no head. The breath of its mouth emitted a foul odor. Its body was one rod in length and one rod in width…” It was circular, hence no “head”.  It smelled bad. Astronomers and scientists have concluded that comets are smelly. With many containing things like ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, formaldehyde, and methanol, if Egypt experienced a massive comet fly-by very near Earth and raining down tail debris that broke away and entered Earth’s atmosphere to eventually  shower the region, Egypt’s air probably smelled like a dead man’s fart. An ancient Egyptian “rod” measures, roughly, about 520 millimeters (or 20 inches). Um, not a very big and threatening UFO. Certainly the ancient Egyptians were squinting their eyes and holding a measuring rod up to the sky to measure the fireball in the background.
  • “After several days had passed, they became more numerous in the sky than ever. They shined in the sky more than the brightness of the sun, and extended to the limits of the four supports of heaven (big blank space)… Power was the position of the Fiery Disks.” This astronomical event lasted for days which is common when a comet passes near enough Earth to be seen by the naked eye or a telescope. The comet or meteorites were numerous and could be seen during the day as they burned up in the atmosphere. They filled the sky and could be seen in every direction. The largest, or “mother” of the comet cluster was oriented in the East (position of power).
  • “It was after the evening meal when the Disks ascended even higher in the sky to the south…” Within one day the orientation of the “mother” comet had traveled from the Eastern horizon to the Southern horizon, appearing higher (smaller) as it traveled further away.
  • “Fish and other volatiles rained down from the sky…” The gringa suspects that some tail debris of the comet crashed into the Nile and/or Euprates and the impact blew fish up into the air and they rained down upon the Egyptians.

So, the gringa does not think that, even if this record is authentic, that it is evidence of UFO visitation with ancient Egypt. What I believe is that there was a very close fly-by event of a comet or comet cluster. It came so close to Earth’s atmosphere that some of the debris in the tail section broke away, much of it burning up in Earth’s atmosphere. However, there were some bits that were incredibly large and at least one that impacted the Nile or Euphrates Rivers. The impact was so powerful that the splashback ejected fish into the air that rained down upon the area.

And just like the raining down of Egyptian fish, the gringa is very sorry to be a UFO party pooper, raining on the dear reader’s parade of the ancient Egyptian/extra-terrestrial connection. However, to be fair, I am still digging through the “evidence” to see if at least one item could create an “AHA!” moment. Stay tuned.

Sources & Image Credit:  www.npr.org, en.wikipedia.org, www.catchpenny.org, www.touregypt.net, www.thelatinlibrary.com, www.ancient-code.com