POWs, MIAs, “We Will Never Forget” Part IV, H-J


In continuation of my blog post of Friday, August, 8, 2015, I will continue to list the names of the servicemen still unaccounted for from the Vietnam and Korean conflicts. The gringa will kindly remind dear readers that clicking on incident date, name, branch of service or side note will take the reader directly to a page regarding that serviceman that is linked with the website www.pownetwork.org. So, in honor of those POWs and MIAs considered with the November 9, 2000, immigration policy known as the “Bring Them Home Alive Act”, the following men are not forgotten:

17-Jul-72   HAAS LEON F.    USN

24-Jul-68    HACKETT HARLEY B.    USAF    (Photo)

06-May-69    HAGAN JOHN ROBERT    USMC

10-Jun-65   HAGEN CRAIG L.   ARMY   Last seen on ground, under fire

09-May-70   HAIGHT STEPHEN H.   ARMY

02-Aug-65   HAIL WILLIAM WARREN   USAF

08-Mar-71   HALE JOHN D.   ARMY

06-Feb-67   HALL DONALD J.   USAF

12-Apr-69   HALL FREDERICK M.   USAF

15-May-75   HALL GARY L.   USMC   Mayaguez Incident loss 05/15/75

10-Jun-65   HALL WALTER L.   ARMY   Last seen on ground, under fire

22-Mar-71   HALL WALTER R.   ARMY

11-MAR-68   HALL WILLIS ROSELLE   USAF   Not on Official DIA list – TDY CIV/LOCKHEED

24-Mar-67   HALLBERG ROGER C.   ARMY

28-Sep-68   HALPIN DAVID P.   USN

21-Apr-67   HAMILTON ROGER DALE   USMC

14-Mar-68   HAMM JAMES E.   USAF

10-Oct-68   HANDRAHAN EUGENE A.   ARMY   Photo

01-Jan-68   HANLEY TERENCE H.   USN

05-APR-70   HANNOTEAUX GUY   CIV

11-Jun-67   HANRATTY THOMAS M.   USMC

13-Aug-69   HANSEN LESTER A.   ARMY

05-Sep-67   HANSON THOMAS P.   USAF

02-Jul-70   HARBER STEPHEN J.   ARMY

27-Jul-67   HARDIE CHARLES D.   USN

12-Oct-67   HARDY JOHN K.   USAF

15-May-75   HARGROVE JOSEPH N.   USMC   Mayaguez Incident loss

17-Oct-67   HARGROVE OLIN JR.   ARMY

18-May-66   HARLEY LEE D.   USAF

19-May-65   HARPER RICHARD K.   ARMY

12-Jun-66   HARRIS GREGORY J.   USMC

22-Oct-66   HARRIS HAROLD L.   ARMY

13-Mar-67   HARRIS PAUL WINIFORD   USMC

12-Apr-66   HARRIS REUBEN   USN

29-Oct-68   HARRISON DONALD L.   ARMY

25-Feb-67   HART JOSEPH L.   USAF

21-Dec-72   HART THOMAS T. III   USAF   Remains Returned 02/21/85 – Id Rescinded

28-Nov-72   HARVEY JACK R.   USAF

15-Jan-71   HARWOOD JAMES A.   ARMY

21-Apr-67   HASENBACH PAUL A.   ARMY

01-Aug-68   HASTINGS STEVEN M.   ARMY

05-FEB-68   HATTON WILTON N.   USAF   Not on Official DIA list

22-Mar-68   HATTORI MASAKI   ARMY

05-Sep-70   HAUER ROBERT D.   USAF

30-Jan-73   HAVILAND ROY ELBERT   USN

11-Jun-67   HAVRANEK MICHAEL W.   USMC

20-Sep-65   HAWKINS EDGAR LEE   USAF

12-Sep-67   HAWTHORNE RICHARD WILLIAM   USMC

24-Aug-68   HEEP WILLIAM ARTHUR   USN

06-Feb-67   HEISKELL LUCIUS L.   USAF

13-Mar-68   HEITMAN STEVEN W.   ARMY

24-Jan-66   HELBER LAWRENCE N.   USMC

17-Apr-68   HELD JOHN W.   USAF

12-Nov-69  HELMICH GERALD ROBERT   USAF   

11-Sep-69   HELWIG ROGER D.   USAF

21-Oct-67   HEMMEL CLARENCE J.   USAF   (Photo)

24-May-72   HENN JOHN R. JR.   ARMY

13-Mar-66   HENNINGER HOWARD W.   USAF

19-Sep-66   HENRY DAVID ALAN   USN

17-Mar-68   HENSLEY THOMAS TRUETT   USAF

04-Mar-71   HENTZ RICHARD J.   ARMY

03-NOV-70   HERBERT MICHAEL P.   RAAF   Australian Air Force – remains located 07/2009

06-May-70   HERNANDEZ FRANK S.   ARMY

02-Sep-72   HEROLD RICHARD W.   USAF

10-Oct-68   HERREID ROBERT D.   ARMY

25-Mar-69   HERRERA FREDERICK D.   ARMY

27-Oct-69   HERRICK JAMES W. JR   USAF

01-Jan-68   HERRIN HENRY H. JR.   USN

31-May-66   HERROLD NED R.   USAF

21-Mar-68   HESFORD PETER D.   USAF   (Photo)

29-Mar-69   HESS FREDERICK W.   USAF   (Photo)

17-Jun-66   HESS GENE K.   USAF

06-Jul-66   HESTLE ROOSEVELT L JR.   USAF

29-Apr-75   HEUBECK ELMER K.   CIV

29-Apr-75   HEUBECK NIBRIT H.   CIV

14-Jan-64   HICKMAN VINCENT JOSEPH   USAF

25-Mar-69   HICKS PRENTICE W.   ARMY

15-Aug-68   HICKS TERRIN D.   USAF

17-Nov-65   HIEMER JERRY A.   ARMY

09-Jun-70   HILBRICH BARRY W.   ARMY

29-Dec-65   HILL ARTHUR S. JR.   USN

21-Jan-68   HILL BILLY D.   ARMY

15-May-67   HILL CHARLES DALE   USN

30-Jun-70   HILL GORDON CLARK   USAF

27-Apr-70  HILL JOHN R.   ARMY

28-May-68   HILL JOSEPH A.  USMC

02-Oct-69   HILL RAYFORD J.   USN

06-Dec-63   HILL RICHARD D.   USAF

18-Oct-66  HILL ROBERT L.   USAF

14-Feb-66   HILLS JOHN R.   USAF

14-Mar-66   HILTON ROBERT L.   USAF

08-Nov-67   HINES VAUGHN M.   ARMY

26-Apr-72   HIRONS ALAN   CIV   Not on Official DIA list

25-Mar-67   HISE JAMES H.   USN

29-Jan-66   HODGSON CECIL J.   ARMY

28-Nov-66  HOEFFS JOHN H.  ARMY

07-Jan-70   HOFF MICHAEL G.   USN

21-Jan-67   HOGAN JERRY FRANKS   USN

03-Jan-71   HOLGUIN LUIS G.   ARMY

11-Mar-68   HOLLAND MELVIN A.   USAF   Not on Official DIA list – TDY CIV/LOCKHEED

20-Jan-68   HOLLEY TILDEN S.   USAF

14-Dec-71   HOLLINGER GREG N.   ARMY

16-Jan-66   HOLLINGSWORTH HAL T.   USN

14-Dec-66   HOLMAN GERALD A.   USN

15-Mar-66   HOLMES DAVID H.   USAF

30-Dec-71   HOLMES FREDERICK   USN

29-Jan-69   HOLTON ROBERT E.   USAF

24-Aug-67   HOLTZMAN RONALD L.   ARMY

17-Aug-67   HOM CHARLES DAVID   USN

23-May-67  HOMUTH RICHARD W.   USN

10-Feb-66   HOPPS GARY DOUGLAS   USN

09-Apr-70   HORCHAR ANDREW A.   USN

29-Apr-75   HORTON PAUL L.   CIV   Left Saigon

24-Mar-70   HOSKEN JOHN C.   ARMY   Group I.D. 06/2001

16-Feb-71   HOSKINS CHARLES L.   USAF   (Photo)

30-Mar-75   HOSKINS THOMAS B.   CIV   Left Saigon 10/75

29-Jul-66   HOSKINSON ROBERT E.   USAF

30-Jun-67   HOUSE JOHN A. II   USMC

19-Apr-68   HOUSH ANTHONY F.   ARMY

07-Jul-70   HOWARD LEWIS J.   ARMY

30-Jun-67   HOWARD LUTHER H.   ARMY

07-Mar-72   HOWELL CARTER A.   USAF

18-May-65   HRDLICKA DAVID L.   USAF   Photo Published by Communists 07/66

17-Mar-68   HUBBS DONALD R.   USN

13-May-70   HUBERTH ERIC J.   USAF

23-Feb-68   HUBLER GEORGE L.   USMC

26-Sep-67   HUDDLESTON LYNN R.   ARMY

10-Feb-71   HUET HENRI   Civ

04-Jun-70   HUGGINS BOBBY GENE   USAF

29-Apr-75   HUGHES JOSEPH   CIV   Left Saigon 08/75

29-Apr-75   HUGHES RICHARD   CIV   Left Saigon 08/75

27-Feb-67   HUIE LITCHFIELD P.   USN

29-Mar-65   HUME KENNETH E.   USN

06-Mar-71   HUMMEL JOHN F.   ARMY

01-Feb-66   HUMPHREY GALEN F.   USMC   (Photo)

04-Nov-70   HUMPHREY LARRY D.   ARMY   Escaped custody to join VC – USA Today 20 Feb 86

24-Apr-72   HUNSICKER JAMES E.   ARMY

05-Feb-70   HUNSUCKER JAMES   USN   Released 02/28/70

13-Oct-68   HUNT JAMES D.   ARMY

28-Feb-68   HUNT ROBERT W.   ARMY

04-Nov-66   HUNT WILLIAM B.   ARMY

29-Oct-68   HUNTER JAMES D.   USA

10-Feb-66   HUNTER RUSSELL P. JR.   USAF

29-Apr-75   HUNTLEY CHAD   CIV   Expelled from Saigon 06/75

27-Sep-69   HUNTLEY JOHN N.   ARMY

13-Jul-68   HURST JOHN CLARK   USMC

06-Feb-68   HUSS ROY A.   USN 

28-Mar-68   HUSTON CHARLES G.   ARMY

05-Dec-65   HYDE JIMMY DON   USN

02-Aug-67   HYNDS WALLACE G. JR.   USAF

19-Nov-67   IANDOLI DONALD   ARMY

05-Jun-67    IBANEZ DI REYES    USMC

09-Jan-68   IRSCH WAYNE C.   USAF

31-May-70   ISHI TOMOHARA   CIV   Not on Official DIA list

27-Jun-69   JABLONSKI MICHAEL J.   ARMY

27-Jun-65    JACKSON CARL E.    USAF

23-Mar-72   JACKSON JAMES T.   USAF

21-Sep-69   JACKSON JAMES W. JR.   USMC

24-Dec-72   JACKSON PAUL V. III   USAF   (Photo)

25-Aug-67   JACOBS EDWARD JAMES JR.   USN

21-Apr-68   JAMERSON LARRY C.   ARMY

18-Apr-73   JAMES SAMUEL L.   USAF   Charred bodies found at crash site (Photo) 
Remains Returned 02 Jan 99    ID Disputed

09-Aug-69   JANOUSEK RONALD J.   USMC

25-Jul-67   JARVIS JEREMY M.   USAF

12-Mar-71   JEFFS CLIVE G.   USAF

08-May-68   JENNE ROBERT E.   ARMY

18-Feb-69   JEROME STANLEY M.   USN

04-Sep-65   JEWELL EUGENE M.   USAF

11-May-68   JIMENEZ JUAN M.   ARMY   Ground Attack, Possibly KIA

28-Jun-68   JOHNS PAUL FREDERCK   USAF

03-Feb-67   JOHNSON AUGUST D.   USN   Reported blown up by grenade in boat

10-Jun-65   JOHNSON BRUCE G.   ARMY

27-Oct-66   JOHNSON DALE A.   USAF

21-Apr-68   JOHNSON FRANKIE B. JR.   ARMY

21-Aug-66   JOHNSON JAMES R.   ARMY

20-Feb-71   JOHNSON RANDOLPH L.   ARMY

29-Jul-67   JOHNSON RICHARD HERMAN   USMC

01-Sep-67   JOHNSON ROBERT D.   USN

03-Dec-65   JOHNSON STANLEY GARWOOD   USMC

19-Jan-68   JOHNSON WILLIAM D.   ARMY

04-Jan-73   JOHNSTON STEVEN B.   USAF

28-Nov-72   JONES BOBBY M.   USAF

23-Nov-69   JONES GRAYLAND   ARMY

03-Oct-66   JONES JAMES E.   ARMY

12-Nov-66   JONES JAMES GRADY   USN

24-Apr-72   JONES JOHNNY M.   ARMY

29-Nov-67   JONES LOUIS F.   USAF   Remains Returned 11/20/2000 ID’d 11/26/2001
Family has NOT accepted ID as of 10/2002

16-Apr-72   JONES ORVIN C. JR.   USAF

06-Feb-68   JONES THOMAS P.   USN

12-Apr-66   JORDAN LARRY M.   USN

01-Apr-67   JOURDENAIS GEORGE HENRY   USAF

30-Mar-75   JUDSON LORENZO D.   CIV   Left Saigon 05/76

08-May-68   JURECKO DANIEL E.   ARMY

Photo courtesy: www.telegraph.co.uk

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POWs, MIAs, “We Will Never Forget” Part III, D-G


In continuation of my blog post of Friday, August, 8, 2015, I will continue to list the names of the servicemen still unaccounted for from the Vietnam and Korean conflicts. The gringa will kindly remind dear readers that clicking on incident date, name, branch of service or side note will take the reader directly to a page regarding that serviceman that is linked with the website www.pownetwork.org. So, in honor of those POWs and MIAs considered with the November 9, 2000, immigration policy known as the “Bring Them Home Alive Act”, the following men are not forgotten:

13-Dec-68  DAILEY DOUGLAS V.   USAF

09-Jun-65  DALE CHARLES A.       ARMY   Disappeared over Vinh Binh

27-Apr-67   DALLAS RICHARD H.   USMC

29-Apr-75   DANIEL LEON                CIV      Expelled from Saigon 08/75

05-Oct-70   DAVIDSON DAVID A.    ARMY

19-May-68   DAVIES JOSEPH E.      USAF

25-Jul-67     DAVIS DONALD V.       USN

17-Sep-68   DAVIS EDGAR F.           USAF

14-Jun-72   DAVIS FRANCIS J.         USN

13-Mar-66   DAVIS GENE E.             USAF

11-Mar-68   DAVIS JAMES WOODROW    USAF   Not on Official DIA list – TDY CIV/LOCKHEED

20-Mar-69   DAVIS RICARDO G.     ARMY

05-May-66   DAWES JOHN J.     ARMY

29-Apr-75   DAWSON ALAN   CIV   Expelled from Saigon 09/75

06-Nov-64   DAWSON DANIEL G.   ARMY

11-Apr-65   DAWSON DONALD   CIV   Released 08/21/65 – Captured searching for brother

16-Jul-69   DAWSON JAMES V.   USAF

03-Nov-70   DAY DENNIS I.   ARMY

02-Oct-69   DAYAO ROLANDO C.   USN

08-May-68   DAYTON JAMES L.   ARMY

18-Jun-71   DE BLASIO RAYMOND V.   USN

05-Sep-63   DE BRUIN EUGENE H.   CIV   

03-Nov-71   DE CAIRE JACK L.   ARMY

19-Nov-67   DE HERRERA BENJAMIN D.   ARMY

12-Apr-69   DE SOTO ERNEST L.   USAF

02-Oct-69   DEAN DONALD C.   USN

17-May-66   DEERE DONALD T.   ARMY

06-Sep-68   DEICHELMANN SAMUEL M.   USAF

07-Feb-69   DELEIDI RICHARD A.   USMC

14-Oct-77   DELLENBAUGH CORNELIA   CIV   Released from Saigon 01/12/78

18-May-67   DELONG JOE L.   ARMY

09-Jun-65   DEMMON DAVID S.   ARMY   Disappeared over Vinh Binh

17-Jun-66   DEMPSEY JACK I.   USN

23-Apr-70    EADS DENNIS K.   ARMY   

 22-Jun-70    EARLE JOHN S.    USN

 21-Oct-66    EARLL DAVID J.    USAF

28-Nov-72   EARNEST CHARLES M.   USN

21-Aug-67   EBY ROBERT G.   CIV

05-Nov-69   ECHANIS JOSEPH   USAF

03-Oct-66   ECHEVARRIA RAYMOND L.   ARMY

05-Feb-68   EDGAR ROBERT J.   USAF

29-Apr-75   EDIGER MAX   CIV   Left Saigon 05/76

31-May-66   EDMONDSON WILLIAM R.   USAF

21-Jan-66   EGAN JAMES T. JR.   USMC

19-Jan-67   EHRLICH DENNIS MICHAEL   USN

05-Dec-65   EISENBERGER GEORGE J.   ARMY

05-Jul-65   EISENBRAUN WILLIAM F.   ARMY   On PRG DIC List 08/07/65

24-Apr-72   ELLEN WADE L.   ARMY

02-Oct-69   ELLERD CARL J.   USN

09-Jun-70   ELLIOTT ANDREW J.   ARMY

21-Jan-68   ELLIOTT JERRY W.   ARMY

03-Jan-68   ELLIS BILLY J.   ARMY

18-Apr-69   ELLIS RANDALL S.   ARMY

24-Jun-66   ELLIS WILLIAM   ARMY

24-Mar-67   ELLISON JOHN C.   USN

02-May-68   ENGLANDER LAWRENCE J.   ARMY

18-May-71   ENTRICAN DANNY D.   ARMY

16-Mar-68   ERICKSON DAVID WAYNE   USMC

13-Nov-68   ERSKINE JACK D.   CIV   VC Sketches of Erskine found

01-Sep-69   ESCOBEDO JULIAN JR.   USMC

29-Apr-75   ESPER GEORGE   CIV   Expelled from Saigon 06/75

26-Apr-67   ESTOCIN MICHAEL J.   USN

26-Mar-68   EVANCHO RICHARD   USMC

05-Dec-68   EVANS BILLY K. JR.   ARMY

13-Mar-68   EVANS CLEVELAND JR.   USMC

02-Mar-69   EVANS WILLIAM A.   ARMY

26-Oct-71   EVELAND MICKEY E.   ARMY

10-Mar-67   EVERSON DAVID   USAF   Captured by Pathet Lao, help 29 days

29-Apr-75   FAIGAN LARRY   CIV   Left Saigon 12/75

04-Jul-69   FALLON PATRICK M.   USAF

31-Oct-67   FANNING HUGH M.    USMC   Remains Recovered 07/17/84    Id’d Rescinded

13-Dec-68   FANNING JOSEPH P.   USAF

16-May-71   FARLOW CRAIG L.   ARMY

06-Feb-68   FARRIS WILLIAM F.   USN

30-Dec-69   FEATHERSTON FIELDING W.   USAF

09-Apr-65   FEGAN RONALD J.   USN

20-Mar-68   FELLOWS ALLEN E.   USAF

11-May-66   FENELEY FRANCIS J.   USAF

21-Dec-72   FENTER CHARLES F.   USAF   Remains Returned 02/21/85 – Family refused Id

17-Jan-69   FICKLER EDWIN JAMES   USMC

30-Sep-68   FIESZEL CLIFFORD W.   USAF

29-Apr-75   FILLER FONG DUONG   CIV   Left Saigon 08/76

26-Oct-71   FINGER SANFORD I.   ARMY

21-Oct-68   FINLEY DICKIE W.   ARMY

24-Dec-71   FINN WILLIAM R.   USAF

09-Sep-66   FISCHER JOHN RICHARD   USMC

17-Oct-67   FITZGERALD PAUL L. JR.   ARMY

21-Jul-68   FLANAGAN SHERMAN E. JR.   USAF

10-May-68   FLEMING HORACE H. III   USMC

24-Nov-67   FOLEY BRENDAN P.   USAF

11-Jun-67   FOLEY JOHN J. III   USMC

19-Dec-71   FORAME PETER C.   ARMY

09-Dec-68   FORD EDWARD   ARMY

22-Jan-66   FORMAN WILLIAM S.   USN

27-Dec-72   FORRESTER RONALD W.   USMC

22-Dec-67   FORS GARY H.   USMC

29-Apr-75   FORSYTHE JULIA   CIV   Left Saigon 10/75

09-Mar-66   FOSTER ROBERT E.   USAF

01-Aug-68   FOWLER DONALD R.   ARMY

06-Jun-72   FOWLER JAMES A.   USAF

02-Oct-69   FOWLER JAMES J.   USN

02-Oct-69   FOWLER ROY G.   USN

24-Feb-65   FRAKES DWIGHT GLENN   USN

29-Apr-75   FRANJOLA MATT   CIV   Expelled Saigon 05/75

23-Mar-68   FRANKS IAN J.   ARMY 

02-Jul-69   FRANSEN ALBERT M JR.   USN

01-Mar-66   FRAWLEY WILLIAM D.   USN

03-Sep-68   FRAZIER PAUL R.   ARMY

17-Jun-66   FRENG STANLEY J.   USN

22-Jan-66   FRENYEA EDMUND M.   USN

12-Nov-66   FROSIO ROBERT CLARENCE   USN

02-Jan-70   FRYAR BRUCE C.   USN

07-Aug-66   FRYER CHARLES WIGGER   USN

26-Aug-67   FULLER WILLIAM OTIS   USAF

27-Jul-68   FULLERTON FRANK E.   USN

03-Jul-66   GAGE ROBERT H.    USMC

11-Dec-68   GALBRAITH RUSSELL D.   USAF

06-Feb-68   GALLAGHER DONALD L.   USN

13-Jul-65   GALLANT HENRY J.   ARMY 

08-Mar-67   GALVIN RONALD E.   USN

02-Oct-69   GAN LEONARDO M.   USN

24-Mar-70   GANOE BERMAN JR.   ARMY

09-Oct-69   GARBETT JIMMY R.   ARMY

19-Mar-71   GARCIA RICARDO M.   ARMY

29-May-67   GARNER JOHN H.   USN

22-Oct-71   GARRETT MAURICE E. JR.   ARMY

05-Oct-70   GASSMAN FRED A.   ARMY

07-Mar-70   GATES ALBERT H. JR.   USMC

06-Apr-66   GATES JAMES W.   ARMY

31-May-68   GATEWOOD CHARLES HUE   USMC

02-Apr-72   GATWOOD ROBIN F. JR.   USAF

01-May-67   GAUGHAN ROGER CONRAD   USMC

10-Jan-67   GAULEY JAMES P.   USAF

31-Oct-69   GAUTHIER DENNIS L.   ARMY

30-Apr-75   GAY ARLO N.   CIV   Known to have been captured in the Mekong delta in early 1975 – Left Saigon 09/76

16-Jan-68   GEE PAUL STUART   USMC

18-Jun-65   GEHRIG JAMES M. JR.   USAF

26-Sep-67   GEIST STEPHEN J.   ARMY

08-APR-70   GENSLUCKNER GEORG   CIV

08-Feb-68   GEORGE JAMES E.   ARMY

30-May-62   GERBER DANIEL A.   CIV   Taken from Leprosarium

08-Sep-72   GERSTEL DONALD A.   USN

01-May-68   GERVAIS DONALD P.   ARMY

27-Jun-68   GIAMMERINO VINCENT F.   ARMY

02-Apr-72   GIANNANGELI ANTHONY R.   USAF

13-Jun-66   GIERAK GEORGE G JR.   USN

07-Oct-66   GILCHRIST ROBERT M.   USAF   (Photo)

18-Feb-70   GILLEN THOMAS E.   USAF

03-Nov-70   GINN DAVID L.   ARMY

11-Mar-68   GISH HENRY G.   USAF   Not on Official DIA list – TDY CIV/LOCKHED

18-May-68   GIST TOMMY EMERSON   USAF   Egress reported Uyeyama saw ID card

26-May-66   GLANDON GARY A.   USAF

13-Jun-66   GLANVILLE JOHN T JR.   USN

12-Apr-66   GLASSON WILLIAM A.   USN

11-Jan-66   GODFREY JOHNNY HOWARD   USAF

05-Feb-68   GODWIN SOLOMON H.   USMC   Egress states died 02/24/68 (Photo)

17-Mar-67   GOEDEN GENE WILLIAM   USN

17-Sep-72   GOETSCH THOMAS AUGUST   USN

24-Aug-67   GOFF KENNETH B. JR.   ARMY

22-Apr-70   GOLZ JOHN B.   USN

23-Apr-70   GOMEZ ROBERT A.   USAF

21-Mar-70   GONZALES DAVID   USMC

19-Apr-68   GONZALEZ JESUS A.   ARMY

11-Jun-67   GONZALES JOSE J.   USMC

08-Sep-65   GOODWIN CHARLES B.   USN

02-Oct-69   GORE PAUL EDWIN   USN   Not on Official DIA list

02-Oct-69   GORSUCH WILLIAM D.   USN

06-Dec-63   GORTON THOMAS F.   USAF

23-Jul-68   GOSEN LAWRENCE D.   USN

05-FEB-68   GOTT RODNEY H.   USAF   Not on Official DIA list

21-Dec-72   GOULD FRANK A.   USAF

01-Apr-67   GOVAN ROBERT A.   USAF   Remains Id’d 06/14/2002 – ID RESCINDED BY USG 03/2003

14-Jun-69   GRACE JAMES W.   USAF

29-Aug-69   GRAF ALBERT STEPHEN   USMC

03-Oct-69   GRAFFE PAUL L.   ARMY

28-Mar-68   GRAHAM DENNIS L.   USAF

28-Sep-67   GRAHAM GILBERT J.   USN

16-Aug-68   GRANIELA JOSE A. JR.   ARMY

08-Mar-71   GRANTHAM ROBERT E.   ARMY

03-Nov-67   GRAUERT HANS H.   USN

25-May-67   GRAVES RICHARD C.   USN

17-Jun-66   GRAVITTE CONNIE M.   USAF

07-Aug-65   GRAY HAROLD EDWIN JR.   USN

01-Apr-66   GRAYSON WILLIAM R.   USN

16-Nov-65   GREEN DONALD GEORGE   USAF

10-Jul-72   GREEN FRANK C. JR.   USN

04-Dec-70   GREEN GEORGE C. JR.   ARMY

12-Sep-65   GREEN GERALD   USN

18-Jun-70   GREEN JAMES A.   ARMY

26-Mar-68   GREEN LARRY E.   USMC

09-Jan-68   GREEN NORMAN M.   USAF

25-Oct-66   GREEN ROBERT B.   USAF

26-Oct-71   GREEN THOMAS F.   ARMY

14-Apr-72   GREENLEAF JOSEPH G.   USN

07-Jan-66   GREENLEY JON ALFRED   USAF

02-Sep-72   GREENWOOD ROBERT R. JR.   USAF

29-Mar-75   GREGORY MARIE   CIV   Left Saigon with fake passport 08/75

25-Jul-70   GREGORY PAUL ANTHONY   USN

29-Mar-75   GREGORY PHILIPPE   CIV   Left Saigon with fake passport 08/75

24-Jul-68   GREILING DAVID S.   USN

12-May-67   GRENZEBACH EARL WILFRE JR.   USAF

26-May-66   GRIFFEY TERRANCE H.   USAF

12-Mar-68   GRIFFITH JOHN GARY   USN

28-Mar-68   GROSSE CHRISTOPHER A.   ARMY

12-Feb-68   GROTH WADE L.   ARMY

17-Sep-67   GRUBB PETER A.   USAF

01-May-67   GUAJARDO HILARIO H.   USMC

21-Aug-67   GUENTHER HARRY   CIV

18-May-66   GUILLET ANDRE R.   USAF

18-Jun-67   GUILLORY EDWARD J.   ARMY

25-Apr-68   GUILLORY HUBIA J.   ARMY   Reported KIA in ambush, remains left behind

29-Apr-75   GULDEN FREDERICK   CIV   Left Saigon 08/76

22-Jun-70   GUMBERT ROBERT W. JR.   ARMY

12-Feb-68   GUNN ALAN W.   ARMY

Photo courtesy: www.wilsoncenter.org

POWs, MIAs, “We Will Never Forget” Part II, B-C


In continuation of my blog post of Friday, August, 8, 2015, I will continue to list the names of the servicemen still unaccounted for from the Vietnam and Korean conflicts. The gringa will kindly remind dear readers that clicking on incident date, name, branch of service or side note will take the reader directly to a page regarding that serviceman that is linked with the website www.pownetwork.org. So, in honor of those POWs and MIAs considered with the November 9, 2000, immigration policy known as the “Bring Them Home Alive Act”, the following men are not forgotten:

Date               Name                                                 Branch

27-Feb-71     BABCOCK RONALD L.                   ARMY

31-Jan-68     BABCOCK, WILLIAM H. JR.          ARMY   Listed 2009 in PMSEA as Escaped captivity during the Vietnam War

28-Aug-66    BABULA ROBERT L.                       USMC

27-Aug-67    BACIK VLADIMIR HENRY             USMC

22-May-67    BACKUS KENNETH F.                     USAF

27-Mar-68    BADLEY JAMES LINDSAY             USAF

29-Jan-66      BADOLATI FRANK N.                    ARMY

01-Nov-69    BAILEY DANIEL T.                          ARMY

01-May-67   BAILEY JOHN HOWARD                 USMC

29-Apr-75    BAILEY MICHAEL                            CIV

25-Dec-65    BAILON RUBEN                                CIV

29-Apr-75    BAKER JACKY D.                              CIV        Left Saigon 08/76

15-May-66   BALCOM RALPH C.                        USAF

20-Nov-69   BALDRIDGE JOHN ROBERT JR.   USAF

13-Nov-70   BANCROFT WILLIAM W.               USAF

29-Apr-75   BANHAM MAURICE J.                      CIV        Left Saigon 08/76

23-Mar-61   BANKOWSKI ALFONS A.               USAF

12-Jul-69    BANNON PAUL W.                            USAF

18-Sep-65   BARBER ROBERT FRANKLIN       USN

17-Mar-68  BARBER THOMAS D.                      USN

31-Jan-67   BARDEN HOWARD L.                    USAF

27-Jul-67   BARE WILLIAM ORLAN                 USAF

07-Apr-66  BARNETT ROBERT RUSSELL       USAF

31-Aug-68   BARTOCCI JOHN E.                     USN

10-Aug-71  BATES PAUL J. JR.                       ARMY

21-Sep-66    BAUDER JAMES R.                      USN

17-Mar-71   BAUMAN RICHARD L.                 ARMY

08-Nov-67   BAXTER BRUCE R.                       ARMY

20-Mar-66   BEACH ARTHUR J.                       USMC

07-Jul-70     BEALS CHARLES E.                    ARMY

09-Aug-69   BECK EDWARD EUGENE JR.      USMC

02-Oct-69    BECK TERRY L.                           USN

15-Aug-70   BECKER JAMES C.                      ARMY

24-Mar-71   BECKWITH HARRY M.               ARMY

11-Jun-67    BEECHER QUENTIN R.                ARMY

05-Oct-66    BEENE JAMES A.                         USN

05-Dec-66    BEGLEY BURRISS NELSON       USAF

28-Mar-69   BELCHER ROBERT A.                 USAF

23-Jun-66    BELKNAP HARRY JOHN            USN

02-Oct-69    BELL RICHARD W.                      USN

08-APR-70   BELLENDORF DIETER                CIV

9-Jul-67       BENNEFELD STEVEN H.            USMC

13-Dec-67   BENNETT ROBERT E. III             USAF

29-Apr-75   BENNETT SHERMAN H.              CIV        Left Saigon 08/76

22-Dec-72    BENNETT THOMAS W. JR.       USAF

02-Sep-67    BENNETT WILLIAM G.              USAF

17-Mar-68   BENSON LEE D.                          USN

23-May-69   BENTON GREGORY R.              USMC

27-Apr-67    BENTON JAMES AUSTIN          USMC

20-Jan-72     BERDAHL DAVID D.                 ARMY

31-May-68   BERESIK EUGENE PAUL          USAF

07-Aug-71    BERG BRUCE A.                        ARMY

23-Aug-68    BERGEVIN CHARLES L.          USAF

29-Apr-75    BERARD ARAM J.                     CIV        Left Saigon 08/75

05-Dec-68    BERRY JOHN A.                       ARMY

11-Aug-67    BERUBE KENNETH ALLEN     USMC

13-May-69   BESSOR BRUCE C.                   ARMY

26-Nov-71    BEUTEL ROBERT D.                USAF

29-Oct-68     BEZOLD STEVEN                     ARMY

22-Apr-61     BIBER GERALD MACK            ARMY

18-Jun-71     BIDWELL BARRY A.                USN

06-May-69   BILLIPP NORMAN K.                USMC

15-Nov-68    BIRCHIM JAMES D.                 ARMY

15-Jul-68      BIRD LEONARD ADRIAN        USMC

22-Apr-61     BISCHOFF JOHN MALCOM    ARMY

29-Apr-70     BISHOP EDWARD J. JR.         ARMY

07-Jul-67      BITTENBENDER DAVID F.      USAF

24-Oct-72     BIXEL MICHAEL SARGENT    USN

14-Jul-62      BLEWETT ALAN L.                  CIV

19-Apr-68     BLODGETT DOUGLAS R.       ARMY

13-Nov-64    BLOOM DARL R.                     USMC

20-Sep-66     BLOOM RICHARD MCAULIFFE   USMC

12-Nov-69    BODAHL JON KEITH                     USAF

28-Aug-66    BODENSCHATZ JOHN E.              USMC

12-May-72   BOGARD LONNIE P.                       USAF

27-Aug-67    BOGGS PASCHAL GLENN            USMC

02-Mar-69    BOGIAGES CHRISTO C. JR.          USAF

19-Aug-69    BOHLIG JAMES RICHARD            USMC

11-Jun-67     BOHLSCHEID CURTIS R.              USMC

25-Aug-67     BoisClaire RONALD A                  USN        Name is French/USG shows Clair as 1st name

18-Jan-68     BOLES WARREN W.                      USN

02-Apr-72     BOLTE WAYNE L.                          USAF

06-Oct-72     BOLTZE BRUCE E.                        USMC

11-Mar-68    BOND RONALD DALE                    USAF

30-Sep-71     BOND RONALD L.                         USAF     (Photo)

04-Jul-70      BOOKOUT CHARLES F.                ARMY

23-Dec-70     BOOTH GARY P.                            USN

23-Jun-68     BOOTH JAMES E.                          USAF

16-Oct-69     BOOTH LAWRENCE R.                  ARMY

24-Jan-66     BOOZE DELMAR G.                       USMC

29-Apr-75     BORDEN HOWARD A.                    CIV

13-Oct-66     BORDEN MURRAY L.                     USAF

21-Feb-67     BORJA DOMINGO R.                     ARMY

28-Apr-68     BORS JOSEPH C.                           USAF

28-Aug-66    BORTON ROBERT C. JR.              USMC    DoD Remains Returned list 12/96 – Family rejects ID

29-Jul-66      BOSSIO GALILEO F.                     USAF

25-Sep-66     BOSSMAN PETER R.                    USN

02-Dec-66     BOTT RUSSELL P.                       ARMY

20-Dec-68     BOUCHARD MICHAEL L.             USN

03-Aug-65    BOWER JOSEPH E.                      USAF

24-Mar-69    BOWERS RICHARD L.                  ARMY

03-Nov-65    BOWLES DWIGHT POLLARD      USAF

16-Jun-68     BOWMAN FRANK                        USN

02-Oct-69     BOWMAN MICHAEL L.                USN

14-Dec-71     BOYANOWSKI JOHN G.             ARMY

28-Mar-68    BOYER ALAN LEE                       ARMY

28-Feb-70     BOYLE WILLIAM                        ARMY

09-Feb-73     BOYLES HOWARD                     CIV        Remains Recovered 04/73 – ID Refuted by family

12-Feb-70     BRADSHAW ROBERT S. III        USMC

08-Jul-65      BRAM RICHARD C.                     USMC

08-May-69   BRASHEAR WILLIAM J.              USAF

28-Sep-66     BRASHER JIMMY M.                  ARMY

06-Apr-70    BRASSFIELD ANDREW T.           ARMY

26-Jul-67      BRAZIK RICHARD                      USAF

12-Feb-70     BREEDING MICHAEL HUGH     USMC

24-Sep-68     BREINER STEPHEN E.              USMC

25-Feb-68     BRELLENTHIN MICHAEL         USMC    Not on Official DIA List

14-Dec-71     BREMMER DWIGHT A.             ARMY

26-Nov-67    BRENNAN HERBERT O.            USAF

26-Jul-69      BRENNING RICHARD D.           USN

20-Nov-72    BREUER DONALD C.                USMC    (Photo)

04-Jun-68     BRICE ERIC PARKER               USN

29-Apr-75     BRICKMAN JOSEPH                 CIV        Left Saigon 04/76

30-Jun-71     BRIDGES PHILIP W.                 ARMY

14-Dec-66     BRIGHAM ALBERT                  USMC

13-May-69   BROOKS JOHN H.                     ARMY

09-Nov-67    BROWER RALPH W.                 USAF

 30-Jul-70   BROWN DONALD A.                  USAF

19-Sep-66     BROWN FRANK MONROE JR.   USN

12-Feb-68     BROWN HARRY W.                  ARMY

12-Aug-70    BROWN JAMES A.                   ARMY

05-Apr-66     BROWN JAMES WILLIAM       USMC

29-Apr-66     BROWN THOMAS E.                USN

17-Jul-72      BROWN WAYNE G. II               USAF

24-Dec-68     BROWNLEE CHARLES R.       USAF

25-Apr-72     BROWNLEE ROBERT W.         ARMY

29-Apr-66     BRUCH DONALD W. JR.          USAF

18-Feb-69     BRUCHER JOHN M.                 USAF     (Photo)

21-May-66   BUCKLEY LOUIS                       ARMY

16-Dec-69     BUCKLEY VICTOR P.               USN

21-Aug-67    BUDD LEONARD R. JR.           USMC    Released by DRV 03/05/73

17-Sep-72     BUELL KENNETH R.                USN

11-Apr-71     BUERK WILLIAM CARL           USAF

25-Aug-66    BULLARD WILLIAM H.            USN

31-Jan-67     BULLOCK LARRY A.               ARMY

06-Sep-66     BUNDY NORMAN L.                USN

30-Dec-70     BUNKER PARK G.                   USAF     (Photo)

01-Aug-69    BURD DOUGLAS G.                USAF

13-Jun-66     BURKART CHARLES W.        USAF

19-Oct-66     BURKE MICHAEL J.               USMC

05-FEB-69   BURKE WALTER F.                 USAF     Not on Official DIA list

05-Jan-70     BURNES ROBERT WAYNE    USMC

06-Feb-68     BURNETT DONALD F.           USN

02-Feb-68     BURNHAM DONALD D.         ARMY

25-Dec-67     BURNS FREDERICK J.          USMC    On PRG DIC list 01/02/69 – Remains Returned 1994 Id’d 04/95

04-Oct-66     BURNS JOHN D.                    USN        Released by DRV 03/04/73

31-Jul-69      BURNS MICHAEL P.              ARMY

22-Dec-69     BURRIS DONALD D. JR.       ARMY

02-Feb-71     BURROWS LARRY                CIV

24-Jul-68      BUSH JOHN R.                      USAF     (Photo)

09-Jun-66     BUSH ROBERT IRA              USAF

09-Apr-70     BUSHNELL BRIAN L.            USN

14-Jul-69      BUTLER DEWEY R.               ARMY

26-Oct-69     BYNUM NEIL S.                     USAF

09-Jan-69     BYRD HUGH M. JR.              ARMY

13-Mar-68    BYRNE JOSEPH HENRY       USAF

02-Oct-68     BYTHEWAY FRANK L.         CIV

 17-Oct-67    CADWELL ANTHONY B.      ARMY

21-Dec-72     CAFFARELLI CHARLES J.   USAF

17-Jun-66     CAIRNS ROBERT A.               USAF

14-Dec-71     CALDWELL FLOYD D.         ARMY

11-Mar-68    CALFEE HAMES HENRY     USAF     Not on Official DIA List – TDY Civ/Lockheed

27-Mar-68    CALHOUN JOHNNY C.        ARMY

23-Sep-68     CALLAHAN DAVID F. JR.   USN

07-Jan-66     CALLANAN RICHARD JOSEPH   USAF

01-Aug-69    CALLIES TOMMY L.                      USAF     (Photo)

11-Mar-68    CALLOWAY PORTER E.                ARMY

29-Jul-66      CAMERON VIRGIL KING               USN

29-Jan-69     CAMPBELL WILLIAM E.               USAF

29-Apr-75     CANTON SUZAN                           CIV        Left Saigon 08/76

14-Jan-67     CANUP FRANKLIN H. JR.            USN

07-Dec-66     CARLSON JOHN WERNER          USAF

13-Feb-67     CARLSON PAUL V.                      USN

17-Apr-67     CARLTON JAMES E.                    USMC

05-APR-70   CARON GILLES                             CIV

06-Mar-67    CARPENTER HOWARD B.            ARMY

06-Jul-71      CARR DONALD G.                       ARMY

02-Nov-69    CARROLL PATRICK H.                USAF

28-Aug-66    CARTER DENNIS R.                     USMC

24-Apr-72     CARTER GEORGE W.                  ARMY

26-Jan-71     CARTER GERALD LYNN             USN

10-Nov-66     CARTER WILLIAM T.                  USN

31-Jan-71     CARTWRIGHT PATRICK G.        USN

10-Apr-68      CARVER HARRY F.                    ARMY

23-Jun-68     CASEY DONALD F.                    USAF

15-Jul-67      CASSELL ROBIN B.                   USN

27-Apr-67     CASTRO REINALDO ANTONIO USMC

25-Feb-66     CAUSEY JOHN BERNAND        USAF

28-Jun-66     CAVALLI ANTHONY FRANK    USAF

04-Nov-69    CAVENDER JAMES R.               ARMY   Remains of other crew recovered

12-Nov-67    CAYCE JOHN D.                        USN

21-Sep-69     CECIL ALAN B.                         ARMY

20-Apr-68     CESTARE JOSEPH ANGELO    USMC

24-Apr-71     CHAMPION JAMES A.               ARMY

25-Sep-72     CHAN PETER                                USN        Fell Overboard/Oriskany

06-Feb-68     CHAPA ARMANDO JR.            USN

18-Feb-69     CHAPMAN RODNEY M.           USN

21-Mar-67    CHARVET PAUL CLAUDE        USN

30-Jul-70      CHAVEZ GARY A.                    USAF

28-May-71   CHAVIRA STEPHEN                  ARMY

27-Dec-72     CHIPMAN RALPH J.                USMC

11-Jun-67     CHOMEL CHARLES D.            USMC

22-Apr-68     CHOMYK WILLIAM                  USAF

03-Apr-72     CHRISTENSEN ALLEN D.        ARMY

13-Apr-72     CHRISTENSEN JOHN MICHAE   USMC

01-Mar-66    CHRISTENSEN WILLIAM M.        USN

02-Jun-65     CHRISTIAN DAVID M.                 USN        Remains Returned 04/10/86 – Id Questioned

18-Mar-75     CHRISTIAN GEORGE A.             CIV        Left Saigon 08/75

11-Jun-67     CHRISTIE DENNIS R.                  USMC

21-Jan-73     CHRISTOPHERSEN KEITH A.     USN

29-Apr-75     CHUNG YEN BINH                       CIV        Left Saigon 08/76

03-May-70   CHURCHILL CARL R.                  USAF

30-Mar-68    CICHON WALTER A.                   ARMY

01-Jan-69     CLACK CECIL J.                        ARMY

26-Jul-67      CLAFLIN RICHARD AMES        USAF

21-Apr-78     CLARK JAMES W.                     CIV        Phnom Phenh Jail until 11/78

15-Dec-65     CLARK JERRY P.                      ARMY

18-Oct-66     CLARK LAWRENCE                  USAF

24-Oct-67     CLARK RICHARD C.                 USN

14-Feb-69     CLARK STANLEY S.                USAF

03-May-68    CLARK STEPHEN W.               USMC

13-Dec-68     CLARKE FRED L.                    USAF

16-Oct-67     CLARKE GEORGE W.              USAF     (Photo)

09-Nov-67    CLAY EUGENE L.                     USAF

03-May-68   CLEM THOMAS D.                    USMC

22-Mar-71    CLEVE REGINALD D.               ARMY

05-FEB-68   CLEVER LOUIS J.                     USAF     Not on Official DIA list

18-Sep-69     CLINE CURTIS R.                    ARMY

11-Jun-67     CLINTON DEAN E.                  ARMY

15-Mar-65    CLYDESDALE CHARLES F.    USN

18-Jan-69     COADY ROBERT F.                USAF

21-Jan-68     COALSTON ECHOL W. JR.    ARMY

01-Feb-66     COATES DONALD L.              USMC

17-Jun-66     COBBS RALPH B.                   USN

31-Jan-68     COCHEO RICHARD N.            CIV        Taken from house in Yinh Long

23-May-68   COCHRAN ISOM CARTER JR.    ARMY

17-Jun-70     COCHRANE DEVERTON C.       ARMY

24-Nov-63    CODY HOWARD RUDOLPH       USAF     Crew remains recovered, no sign subj

12-May-68   COEN HARRY B.                         ARMY

12-Jan-68     COHRON JAMES D.                  ARMY

06-Mar-69    COLEMAN JIMMY L.                  ARMY

17-Jun-66     COLLETTE CURTIS D.              USN

04-Dec-67     COLLINS ARNOLD                    USMC

13-Mar-68    COLLINS GUY FLETCHER         USAF

22-Nov-69    COLLINS RICHARD F.               USN

19-Aug-68    COLLINS THEOTHIS                 USMC

09-Mar-66    COLLINS WILLARD M.              USAF

31-May-70   COLNE ROGER                          CIV        Not on Official DIA list

06-Mar-68    COLOMBO GARY LEWIS          USMC

10-Jun-65     COMPA JOSEPH J. JR.            ARMY   Last seen on ground

21-Mar-66     COMPTON FRANK R.               USN

03-May-70   CONAWAY LAWRENCE Y.        USAF

08-May-68   CONDREY GEORGE T. III          ARMY

10-Oct-66     CONFER MICHAEL STEELE    USN

27-Jan-69     CONGER JOHN E.                    ARMY

16-May-70   CONNER EDWIN RAY                USN

28-Oct-68     CONNOR CHARLES R.             USMC

07-May-72   CONSOLVO JOHN W.                USMC    (Photo)

12-Apr-66     CONWAY JAMES B.                  ARMY

06-Apr-66     COOK DENNIS P.                      USN

31-Dec-64     COOK DONALD G.                   USMC    On PRG DIC list 12/01/67

21-Oct-69     COOK GLENN R.                      USAF

10-Nov-67    COOK KELLY F.                       USAF

28-Apr-68     COOK WILLIAM R.                   USAF

22-Apr-68     COOLEY DAVID L.                   USN

16-Jan-68     COOLEY ORVILLE D.              USN

28-Feb-68     COONS HENRY A.                   USN

04-Feb-72     COOPER DANIEL D.                USN

29-Apr-75     COOPER WILLIAM G.              CIV        Left Saigon 08/76

16-Nov-68    COPLEY WILLIAM M.               ARMY

27-Jul-67      CORBITT GILLAND W.            USAF

27-Jan-68     CORDOVA ROBERT J.            USN        (Photo)

01-May-67   COREFIELD STAN L.                USMC

08-Dec-65     CORLE JOHN T.                      USMC

16-Jun-73     CORNELIUS SAMUEL B.        USAF

05-NOV-68   CORNTHWAITE THOMAS G.   CIV

08-Nov-70    CORONA JOEL                       ARMY

14-May-68   COTA ERNEST K.                    USN

09-Mar-70    COTTEN LARRY W.                USAF

29-Apr-75     COWAN KENNETH                 CIV

08-Mar-67    CRAIN CARROLL O.               USN

05-Jan-71     CRAMER DONALD M.            ARMY

12-May-68   CRAVEN ANDREW J.              ARMY

21-Apr-68     CREAMER JAMES E.             ARMY

13-Mar-71    CREED BARTON S.                USN        (Photo)

10-Nov-67    CREW JAMES A.                    USAF     (Photo)

22-May-68   CREWS JOHN H. III                 USAF

19-Mar-71    CRISTMAN FREDERICK L.     ARMY

22-Aug-72    CROCKETT WILLIAM J.        USAF

16-May-71   CROOK ELLIOTT                    ARMY

05-Apr-70    CROPPER CURTIS H.             USN

30-Mar-72    CROSBY BRUCE A. JR.         ARMY

01-Jun-65     CROSBY FREDERICK P.      USN

17-Jul-68      CROSS ARIEL L.                  USMC

24-Apr-70     CROSS JAMES E.                 USAF

25-Apr-68     CROSSMAN GREGORY J.   USAF

16-May-68   CROSSON GERALD J.          USAF

27-Mar-72    CROW RAYMOND J. JR.      USAF

19-Nov-67    CROXDALE JACK L. II         ARMY

07-Jul-67      CRUMM WILLIAM J.            USAF

18-May-69   CUDLIKE CHARLES J.          ARMY

02-Aug-67    CUNNINGHAM CAREY A.    USAF

03-Oct-69     CUNNINGHAM KENNETH    ARMY

10-Jun-65     CURLEE ROBERT L. JR.     ARMY

08-Jan-71     CURRY KEITH R.                  USN

25-Sep-66     CUSHMAN CLIFTON E.       USAF

27-Mar-69    CZERWIEC RAYMOND G.    ARMY

Photo courtesy: www.postalmuseum.si.edu

2000 Hmong Veterans’ Naturalization Act


The 2000 Hmong Veterans’ Naturalization Act was passed in order to expedite the naturalization process of persons who were part of guerilla forces or irregular units in Laos during February 28, 1961 and September 18, 1978. Specifically, the naturalization requirement to speak English was waived, along with some other requirements. Spouses were also included in this legislation. The war veteran and family would be granted refugee status. Even if the war veteran had passed away, his family was still eligible for refugee status and expedited naturalization as long as they applied with the time window prescribed. Numbers accepted were limited to 45,000 Hmong Laotians.

Although most Americans are familiar with the Vietnam War, they may be less familiar with what Laos had to do with it. From 1953 until 1975 Laos was embroiled in a civil war between the Pathet Lao and Royal Lao who controlled the government. This was during the time of the Cold War between Russia and the United States. This conflict, like many others around the globe during the Cold Wars, was actually a proxy war between the U.S. and Russia. The Pathet Lao were backed by Russia and the United States threw in with the Royal Lao. For the people in the know during that era this conflict was called the “Secret War” as both sides fought viciously for control over the Laotian Panhandle.

This was a dense jungle region. Ethnic groups in the area felt threatened by the Pathet rebels. They simply wanted to be left alone within their own territory. The tribal territory of the Hmong was a little piece of real estate that was strategic because, if controlled, the U.S. could cut off supply routes to the North Vietnamese. That is why the U.S. decided to support the Hmong with money and war materials.

The legislation describes the Hmong as mountain people from the southern part of China and northern Burma, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam. The bill describes their assistance to U.S. forces during the Vietnam War. When this war ended, the opposing force of Pathet Lao had gained control and many Hmong who had allied themselves with the U.S. were imprisoned and suffered persecution. It is estimated that up to 150,000 Hmong immigrated to the U.S. as refugees as a result of the Vietnam War’s outcome.

The United States recognized that the Hmong’s choice to support the Americans was at great personal risk of danger and possible loss of life. They participated in critical and dangerous missions. They were an important source of military intelligence that was used in combat operations as well as rescue operations for downed pilots.

Once the refugees arrived in the U.S. they found the naturalization process difficult because of the difficulty of learning the English language. The Hmong society did not have a written language until recently so many of the guerillas had never attended a school in the sense of what American society considers education. Because of this difficulty, the nation decided to ease the language requirement in order for these families to become U.S. citizens.

When President Clinton signed this bill into law, this is what he had to say, “This legislation is a tribute to the service, courage, and sacrifice of the Hmong people who were our allies in Laos during the Vietnam War. After the Vietnam War, many Hmong soldiers and their families came to the United States and have become part of the social fabric of American society. They work, pay taxes, and have raised families and made America their home… This law is a small step but an important one in honoring the immense sacrifices that the Hmong people made in supporting our efforts in Southeast Asia.”  It  may have taken America twenty years, but, the gringa is proud to say that finally, the country made things right.

Sources:

https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol47no1/article01.html

http://library.uwb.edu/guides/usimmigration/2000_hmong_veterans_naturalization_act.html

https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/106/hr371

https://www.socialsecurity.gov/legislation/legis_bulletin_061300.html

http://www.oac.cdlib.org/view?docId=hb5x0nb468;NAAN=13030&doc.view=frames&chunk.id=ss1.01&toc.depth=1&toc.id=&brand=oac4

http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CRPT-106hrpt563/html/CRPT-106hrpt563.htm

http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=58559

http://www.ilw.com/immigrationdaily/news/2000,0927-Hmong.shtm

http://www.aila.org/infonet/dhs-hmong-veterans-naturalization-act-2000

Photo credit:  2001-2009.state.gov

Deportation: Easy to Say, Impossible to Do


1996 Illegal Immigration Reform & Immigrant Responsibility Act

In addition to welfare reform regulations that affected immigrants, President Bill Clinton also enacted sweeping immigration reform, signing the 1996 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act into law September 30, 1996. The scope of the bill was broad with a goal to strengthen current immigration laws and simplify immigration procedures. The lengthy document had five critical areas:

  • Border Control enhancement with more personnel, equipment and technology
  • Stronger penalties for convictions of smuggling, human trafficking, and document fraud
  • Reformed deportation procedures
  • Stricter enforcement of employers
  • Benefits restrictions for immigrants

The focus of this blog post will be on the deportation details. It is very common to hear anti-immigrant supporters scream for mass deportation. Usually, they haven’t a clue what that entails. It is a lengthy and costly process, paid for by the taxpayers, and, in the end, even if ruled deportable, almost impossible to actually accomplish.

With an estimated eleven million undocumented people within U.S. borders, I think it is time for the nation to simply wipe the slate clean, grant working or student resident status for the non-criminal immigrants that are here and start over. After you read the basic legal details for the deportation process, you will understand why the gringa feels this way. You may even agree.

So, what about decent people who have managed to enter the country undocumented, are minding their own business, working and contributing to society in a meaningful way? How will the government treat them? According to the 1996 legislation they are to be treated according to their status, illegally present, except for minors, battered women, refugees seeking asylum and certain situations with regard to keeping family unity intact.

For the average undocumented immigrant, after 1996, if discovered, they could look forward to apprehension and detention. It would then be up to the Attorney General to decide whether or not to begin deportation proceedings and keep the person in detention or release them on bond or conditional parole. Such decisions were weighed according to whether or not the immigrant posed a danger to the safety of people and property and could be relied upon to appear for judicial proceedings.

So, an undocumented person gets discovered, is detained, has a hearing and is either released (without work authorization) or continues in detention until receiving a “Notice To Appear”. If they are released they would either have to rely on the charity of others or work off the books. If they remain in detention, it is all on the taxpayer dime.

Their second court appearances is to hear the charges. A period of time is then given for the immigrant to retain counsel. Typically about ninety days. Mind you, then, by the time the actual “Removal Proceeding” is conducted by the court, anywhere from three months to six months has transpired.

At the third appearance, the actual trial of the “Removal Proceeding”, the immigrant’s counsel could also ask for a postponement. Such a strategy occurs quite often in many types of court cases. Six months could drag on into seven or eight months. When the postponed trial date rolls around, if the immigrant fails to appear, which is also not uncommon, counsel can then request a 180 day delay if the reason for the failure to appear is legitimate, such as illness. Now, the deportation process is stretching into about a one year scenario.

After a year of legal wrangling and delays, the “Removal Proceeding” actually takes place. The greater burden of proof is on the nation to provide clear and convincing evidence that the immigrant is deportable. The legislation clearly states that deportation is only valid if reasonable, substantial, and probative evidence is produced. Suppose the judge decides the immigrant is deportable. What then? Well, the immigrant has the right to appeal the case within thirty days. Now we’re up to a year and a month for the deportation process.

What happens with an appeal? The process then starts all over again. So, two years later, from the time the immigrant was first discovered, the final ruling is still for deportation. Now what?

If it is finally concluded that the immigrant is indeed deportable, the Attorney General may still grant the immigrant the right of voluntary departure, at their own expense, within sixty days if the immigrant meets certain criteria. Sounds crazy, right? How many of these “voluntary departure” cases actually departed? Mm hmm. Can you say, “Loophole! Duck and take cover! Lay low and hunker down!”.

If the Attorney General decides the nation will handle the departure, there is a ninety day window in which to accomplish removing the immigrant from the country. Now the deportation process has developed into a two year and three month time period for accomplishment. Will deportation be accomplished?

In a case where the nation handles the actual removal of the immigrant, the immigrant is detained. Again, detention is paid for by the taxpayer. The immigrant will remain in detention until he makes arrangements for departure. There is no law that requires the immigrant actually do this. Even if the country makes the arrangements, the immigrant has to declare where he wants to go. No one can force the immigrant to do this either.

The dear reader asks, “Why doesn’t the nation just return the immigrant to his country of origin?” Well, because that is a sticky process as well. Read on and you’ll find out why. For travel scheduling reasons or because of lack of cooperation from the immigrant, another ninety day time extension can be made. Deportation process now clocking in at two and a half years (and all that time either working off the books, living off the charity of others, or in detention getting room and board on the taxpayer dime).

So, the ninety day extension passes and the immigrant still refuses to leave. Guess what? We can’t force him to. So, the Attorney General now has the “option” to declare a suspension of deportation. This is determined by the immigrant’s length of continuous physical presence in the country, good moral character, and to what degree of hardship deportation would cause. Basically, the Attorney General thinks to himself, “This person has been in the country X number of years, has been a pretty good guy and done well for himself here and if we send him back where he came from his life will return to the living hell he was trying to escape in the first place. Okay. Suspension of deportation granted.” And now the immigrant will be subject to periodic meetings with immigration officers, medical and psychiatric exams at the country’s expense, have no authorization to legally work and live by certain restrictions as outlined by the Attorney General.

Is the dear reader now getting a clearer picture of this mess now? Is the dear reader now no longer surprised and totally understands why so many undocumented people are here and why they will probably continue to stay here? So, if an undocumented person is a law abiding, decent person other than their unlawful entry into the nation, even if ordered by the court to be deported, the country can still not forcibly remove them. They can remain in this country without authorization to work, therefore forced to work off the books and unable to contribute to the very nation that is tolerating their presence. Sounds absolutely crazy to the gringa to go to all this trouble only to end up right back where we started!

Why is forcible removal not possible? Number one, you have a person with no legal identity. You first have to prove who they are in order to know where they come from so you can send them back! Since they have the right to remain silent, they cannot even be forced to tell law enforcement who they are. So, a true individual identity linked to a birth country of origin is what the Attorney General’s office requires before it can make arrangements for deportation. Then some other country must be willing to accept them. They once again have to cross a border into another nation. Who is going to accept them? What if their country of origin is not a neighboring country? What if their country of origin requires travel through multiple other countries? These other countries also have to allow them entry.

If, then, an undocumented individual has been delivered a deport ruling and refuses to reveal his or her true identity, what next? Then the taxpayers have to pay for a full scale investigation to figure out who they are and where they came from if that immigrant decides to exercise this right and not tell immigration officials a damn thing. How do investigators do that?Umm, talk to friends, family and co-workers? Say they do. Say they find out he calls himself Ricardo Montalban from Nicaragua. How does the investigator prove it? Does he call someone in Nicaragua and say, “Hey, we’ve got this guy says he’s Ricardo Montalban from your country. Anybody born about thirty years ago by that name in your neck of the woods?” Honestly, you think it’s that easy? Say the investigators get lucky and they get something like a fingerprint ID to prove Ricardo really is from Nicaragua. Say the judge says, “Deport ol’ Ricardo.” Then, the Attorney General calls up Nicaragua and says, “We’d like to send him back.” Nicaragua can say, “Nope. We don’t want him. We were glad to see the back of ‘im. We won’t let him enter the country. He’s your problem now. You keep him.”  But, then again, maybe Nicaragua says, “Sure, we’ll take him back.” Then the Attorney General has to call Mexico and say, “Hey, we’re deporting this guy to Nicaragua but there is a six hour layover in Mexico City. Is that okay with you guys?” What if Mexico says, “Hell no! Ol’ Ricardo caused nothing but trouble last time he passed through here. He’s banned. We won’t let him enter.” Then the U.S. is still stuck with Ricardo. Can you imagine the process of passing through multiple countries and border entries if we deported someone to China or Russia? Now you see just how impossible deportation can really be.

Complicated re-entry and multiple border crossings aside, America also has laws that prevent removal of an immigrant into a country of origin that is at war or where the immigrant’s life or freedom may be threatened. In that case as well as scenarios like the one depicted in the previous paragraph, the only alternative is for the Attorney General’s office to grant an immigrant a “stay”. The immigrant can be released from detention on bond and certain conditions outlined by the Attorney General’s office BUT, yes, the big but, still not authorized to work! IT’S INSANE! I suppose they expect these people to work the rest of their lives off the books and be ghosts in society.

And that, in a nutshell, is the crazy process of deportation. You see, even if they have an illegal status, they still enjoy equal protection under American law. Once they are here the burden is on the United States to prove they don’t belong, prove who they are, and prove where they came from. And, no matter who they turn out to be, the judiciary’s role is to safeguard the rights of ALL individuals. The burden of proof is on the nation to prove a case against the undocumented immigrant.

As a result of this legislation, we can all thank President Clinton for the fact that ever since its passage immigration detention beds have been filled to capacity at taxpayers expense, ruined lives and no real gain in trimming down the numbers of undocumented people within U.S. borders. That is why mandatory detention and deportation needs to stop because it doesn’t actually end with a deportation, only a deportation order that is unenforceable. Every penny of taxpayer money to get from point A to point B only to be told you must return to point A and stay there is wasted. The future of the immigrant is wasted as well. In 2013 there were over 300,000 cases lined up, waiting their turn, for removal proceedings. How much do you think just one of those cases costs the taxpayers? Let’s just guess at $10,000 per case (although the cost is probably much higher). Multiply that times 300,000. Now take all that $3 billion and flush it down the toilet. See what the gringa means?

So, two years and six months of time and expense in detention and the court system, all paid for by the taxpayers, and what was accomplished. Nothing, other than keeping a person within the nation’s borders who is forced to work off the books and therefore unable to contribute their fair share of taxes and Social Security into the system. Now do you see what the gringa means when she said legalize the workers and students, wipe the slate clean and start over?

Once they are legalized, they have an identification that can legally be tracked down to their country of origin. Just like a resident alien, if they commit a felony in five years’ time, they forfeit their chance at citizenship and are deportable because now the country knows who they are, where their country of origin is and the evidence of a deportable crime. During their five year probation, they have been legally working and contributing their fair share of taxes and Social Security. If they keep their nose clean during their five year probation, letting them stay in the country was the right thing to do. So, again, the gringa says, “Just legalize ‘em. It’s the only thing, at this time, that actually makes sense.”

But, if it makes sense, why doesn’t the U.S. government do it? Because the nation has a history of importing cheap labor for big business to exploit; a labor class that has no legal status to make demands for civil rights and protection. Until big business stops running our country’s government through the politicians they own, the nation will never get meaningful immigration reform because it is not in the interest of big business.
Sources:

http://library.uwb.edu/guides/usimmigration/1996_illegal_immigration_reform_and_immigrant_responsibility_act.html

https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/illegal_immigration_reform_and_immigration_responsibility_act

http://www.uscis.gov/iframe/ilink/docView/PUBLAW/HTML/PUBLAW/0-0-0-10948.html

http://immigrationinamerica.org/577-illegal-immigration-reform-and-immigrant-responsibility-act-of-1996.html

https://www.aclu.org/blog/ending-laws-fuel-mass-detention-and-deportation

http://liftedlamp.com/2013/02/06/why-immigration-reform-must-also-avoid-the-mistakes-of-1996/

http://immigration.procon.org/view.answers.php?questionID=000794

Photo credit: www.iyjl.org

Immigration and Welfare: What’s a Civilized Nation To Do?


The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act

August 22, 1996, President Bill Clinton signed into law a welfare reform plan that not only changed things for the nation’s citizens, but also for the nation’s immigrants. Title IV of the bill contained the details on the provisions that affected “aliens”.

Title IV opens with the explanation that the basic principle of United States immigration law is self-sufficiency. With that in mind, it declares that aliens living in the U.S are to depend on their own capabilities, sponsors and private organizations to provide the resources for the needs of their families rather than depend on public resources. Despite these premises, the Act acknowledges the fact that aliens have been receiving public benefits at increasing rates. The legislation explains that this is due to inadequate eligibility standards that do not prevent aliens from enrollment in the public benefits system. One of the purposes of this legislation was to reform eligibility rules so that aliens comply with national immigration policy.

For their first five years in America “aliens” are prohibited from receiving any federal benefit. Exceptions to this are immigrants who: need emergency medical care; need short-term disaster relief; qualify for school lunch programs; qualify for Head Start programs; who need immunizations or treatment of a communicable disease; are granted asylum and refugee status; are permanent residents who have worked 40 qualifying quarters contributing to Social Security; are military veterans discharged honorably or are active duty military. Aliens who were receiving federal housing assistance up to the date the new law was enacted are exempt and can maintain their housing benefit.

So, what about immigrants who were currently receiving benefits and now were in a “disqualified” class? Is the government going to suddenly turn off the spigot and immigrant families scramble to adjust their lifestyle to accommodate a sudden loss of income support? Legislators laid out a plan for a transition period for these people. They would have a year to determine what benefit denial they qualified for and prepare for what this would mean for their home budget. Many of these programs required recipients to reapply for benefits on a yearly basis. At such time, disqualified “aliens” would simply be denied their benefit based on the parameters of this welfare reform bill.

Just what were the primary welfare programs this bill was concerned with? They were food stamps, Medicaid, and Social Security temporary assistance for the needy (SSI). The exempt programs, such as school lunch programs, were considered benefits that were “means” based. In order to qualify, not only was the immigrant’s income to be considered, but also the income of the immigrant’s sponsor. This was also required for an immigrant who attempted to qualify for State funded, rather than federally funded, benefits. If it was found that an immigrant had received a Federal or State benefit they would have actually been disqualified from receiving because of a sponsor’s financial means, the Federal and State government can now demand reimbursement from the sponsor.

The overall goal of this welfare reform was to move recipients from a welfare lifestyle to a working lifestyle over a five year period and permanently keep them self-sufficient. It also sought to remove from recipient status those who were on the dole and shouldn’t be, one such category being the immigrant. Was this goal achieved? Was this goal good for America? In 1994 the U.S. welfare system logged 14.4 million caseloads. Five years later, these caseloads had dropped to 5.3 million. The gringa thinks it’s safe to say, “Mission accomplished! Way to go President Bill Clinton! Umm, maybe.”

Why maybe? You see, many of these families were not actually completely self-sufficient. They simply moved from government generated income to the status of low-income. Single mothers especially were affected by this, becoming even poorer than when they were receiving benefits. As these families lost their Medicaid benefit by entering the workforce, they were often faced with employers who did not offer affordable health benefits. A worker supporting three people would not qualify for Medicaid if they earned more than $11,920 (for a family of three) annually. Now, the gringa would like to know who in their right minds thinks a family can afford health insurance and medical bills for three people if they make less than, say, about $70,000? Washington D.C. was way off base deciding this number was the qualifying poverty line.

Families that were accustomed to a housing benefit that kept their rent very low, were suddenly faced with paying full market rate for the roof over their head. That could mean, for a family that was earning $11,920.01, a penny above the qualifying poverty line, their rent could go from $200 to $700. You tell the gringa if you honestly think these poor, working class people could afford such a thing? Many could not. Remember, they also still had to pay their electricity bill. Sheesh. What was Congress thinking? The problem was not in the legislation itself. The problem was with what Congress thought the economic threshold of “poverty” should be. This presented the nation with a demographic that still was in dire need of public assistance.

So, although welfare was definitely reformed and got a lot of people off the government dole, a whole other problem was created. More families and disabled people simply became impoverished. Many of these people worked but did not earn a living wage. So, for the many anti-immigrant xenophobes out there who thought it was the immigrants who poured across the border and stole American jobs, the gringa will tell you to look at the numbers. From 1996 until 2001 it was not the immigrants filling these low paying positions. It was former welfare recipients, about 9 million to be exact.

So, if you want to measure success by the caseload numbers, yeah, Clinton achieved his goal. However, if you want to measure success by comparing quality of life before and after, it’s a different story altogether. Consider that most of these transitioned welfare recipients could not work full-time or year round, especially single moms. Many earned minimum wage or just a bit more. Either way, it was not enough to provide a decent standard of living for their families. Once you consider achieving a decent standard of living to be the measure for success, you can see the Clinton administration failed miserably. Although welfare enrollment declined, the numbers of the poverty class increased dramatically.

Consider that the poverty line as established by the government was $11,920 for a family of three. Consider the working single mom that may be making about $8 per hour and working only when her kids are in school because she can’t afford child care. Working eight hours daily, five days weekly, ten months annually (two months off for her kids school summer break), with no days off, she then brings home, on average, $12,000 annually. So, she makes too much to be considered in “poverty” in order to qualify for government benefits, but, you tell me, does she make anywhere near the $30,000 needed to afford the basic necessities for an adult and two children in 1996?

Out of 126 New York City “welfare to work” cases, the average person was earning $7.50 hourly and 58% were supporting their families with their work income. The gringa asks, “How in the hell did they manage?” Nationwide studies reported that most welfare recipients that entered the workplace earned well below poverty level. This was actually good news because they would qualify for means- based Federal and State benefit programs. However, there were plenty more that earned over the poverty level but nowhere near the $30,000 threshold that was the bare minimum for a small family’s basic necessities. Thus, this legislation created a large poverty class in America.

When you check the specific budget cuts, it is easy to see that most of the people affected were immigrants, elderly, disabled and single mothers. These are the nation’s most vulnerable classes of people. What this legislation meant is that poor people who were dependent on government programs to feed and house them and provide medical care actually became poorer, and possibly un-housed, underfed and without health care (unless they showed up at a hospital emergency room; which is exactly what happened, starting a new trend of packed ER’s, but that is fodder for another gringa story).

Social workers who are the ground zero, in the trenches workers and see the direct effect of these programs, criticized this reform. They claimed that by replacing the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program with the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program, even if a family met all eligibility requirements, there was no assurance that children or parents would receive assistance. This was because oversight of the block grants was performed by individual states. States had their own requirements for eligibility. This meant that some states could deny aid to families with teenage parents or to families where both parents were present in the home, even if they met every Federal qualifier and regardless of their income level, if they had any income at all. Also, once the grant money ran out, states would place applicants on a waiting list for the next Federal funding period.

The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights had its own criticisms of the reform. They considered that within the welfare system was institutional racism and discrimination. They felt the legislation did not take into consideration the gender gap in wages. Rather than help women on welfare gain meaningful employment, the nation simply cracked down on eligibility requirements.  The government focus was on “work first” without doing anything to level the workforce playing field.

Many welfare recipients whose job and below poverty line wages qualified them for benefits would tolerate discriminatory practices in the workplace out of fear of dismissal and loss of benefits if they filed a complaint. Many immigrants were discriminated against with regard to case management and receiving benefits they qualified for because of language barriers.

To remedy these discriminatory practices, the USCCR recommended that Federal funds should be allocated for enforcement of civil rights among recipients, investigations of allegations of violations and to train caseworkers in how to better adhere to civil rights statutes. They further recommended better data collection on the people registering to qualify for benefits as well as the recipients and that all welfare agencies be subjected to audits with regard to civil rights grievances and compliance. The gringa understands this need but can’t help but think, “Dear God. It cost money to save money simply because some people can’t treat other people right.”

Specifically where immigrants were concerned, the USCCR was concerned with the law prohibiting immigrants from receiving any aid until they had been in the country for at least five years. The living conditions of many of these poor families continued to just get worse. Although, among some groups of people, the immigrant was a favorite target to accuse of entering the country just to live off the backs of taxpayers, this was actually a myth. Prior to 1996, statistics show that immigrant families were greatly outnumbered by citizen families in receiving benefits. This is because most immigrants come to the United States looking for jobs and opportunity, not handouts. As for immigrants that did qualify for aid, many would not accept it for fear of retribution.

The USCCR’s final recommendation regarding immigrants and the 1996 welfare reform was to immediately restore full benefits to immigrants regardless of when they entered the country and regardless of the financial resources of their sponsors. They further recommended that undocumented immigrants, for humanitarian reasons, should at least have access to health care, education and food stamps. To protect their civil rights, it was recommended that language assistance be provided for them throughout every step of the public assistance process.

Although these families may still struggle to feed, house and clothe their families, all is not doom and gloom. As mothers moved into the workforce, many children left in-home care and entered organized formal care. Studies resulted in surprising findings. Many of these children benefited from these environments with increased cognitive development, learning gains, and school readiness. These studies further suggested that the adolescents of these families were more likely to become employed later on when compared to adolescents in welfare dependent homes.

Now that the nuts and bolts of the legislation as well as its aftermath has been covered, the gringa asks, “Who REALLY benefited from this legislation?” The answer? Well, number one, the politician who was pandering to: a. voters with money and influence; and, b. corporations who contributed lots of money to campaigns. How so? Well, think about it. When the labor market is flooded with people looking for jobs, guess what, wages stay low! And that’s EXACTLY what happened, So, this piece of “social” reform was really a cheap labor package for the benefit of big corporations. Remember the economy boom during the Clinton years? Yeah, well, those growing businesses needed workers, and they wanted them as cheap as they could get ’em.

The reality is, if the government wants people to be self-sufficient, they must simply accept the fact that now, as in 1996, wages are too low for many families to escape poverty whether they work forty hours a week or even 60 hours a week. The gringa believes so much more could have been accomplished by simply raising minimum wage standards across the board to a living income level. Anyone who works forty hours weekly should make enough money to keep a roof over their head, feed and clothe themselves and afford healthcare.

For critics who argue that minimum wage jobs are simply entry level jobs for people to use temporarily and then move on to a better paying career level job, the gringa has got news for you. Welcome to the “New America” where 61% of young Americans have a college education, 44% of those college educated people are stuck in low income level jobs earning less than $25,000 annually and half of those have student debt of around $30,000 a year. Raising the minimum wage to a living standard level will not make these people rich, it will make them self-sufficient. Self-sufficiency was, after all, the true goal of this legislation. So, critics, the gringa says, “Quit pointing the finger and start lifting a hand to help these hard working Americans become self-sufficient. Join the cause to raise the minimum wage to $15 per hour.”

Sources:

http://www.forbes.com/sites/ashleystahl/2015/05/11/the-5-4-unemployment-rate-means-nothing-for-millennials/

https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/millennials_report.pdf

http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-104hr3734enr/pdf/BILLS-104hr3734enr.pdf

http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Personal_Responsibility_and_Work_Opportunity_Reconciliation_Act_of_1996.aspx

http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/1996_Personal_Responsibility_and_Work_Opportunity_Reconciliation_Act

http://www.epi.org/publication/webfeatures_viewpoints_tanf_testimony/

https://www.socialworkers.org/advocacy/welfare/legislation/summary.pdf

http://www.usccr.gov/pubs/prwora/welfare.htm

https://www.facebook.com/Fightfor15?fref=photo

Photo credit: www.slideshare.net

1990 Immigration and Nationality Act – It’s The Lottery, Baby!


Let’s play the lottery and see who gets to enter the country! Yes, the 1990 Immigration and Nationality Act introduced a lottery program. But, don’t be fooled. Lottery is just a fun way of saying “quota”. Quota was a bad word in the history of United States immigration policies. I guess legislators thought this was a pretty slick maneuver.

November 29, 1990, President George Bush, Sr., spoke to the nation and made these points about the bill he signed into law:

  • He respected immigrants: “… the fundamental importance and historic contributions of immigrants to our country…”
  • He appreciated the need for family unity: “… our tradition of family reunification… support for the family as the essential unit of society…”
  • He acknowledged the economic benefit of the immigrant, “… immigration of skilled individuals to meet our economic needs… cultivation of a more competitive economy… encourage the immigration of exceptionally talented people, such as scientists, engineers, and educators… promote the initiation of new business… and the investment of foreign capital in our economy…”
  • He was honest about the “bad” element among immigrants: “… swift and effective punishment for drug-related and other violent crime… aliens who, by their violent criminal acts, forfeit their right to remain in this country… jeopardize the safety and well-being of every American resident… improves this Administration’s ability to secure the U.S. border…”

Annually, the Attorney General would review statistics that had been gathered for five years from all over the country. Nations would be designated as “High Admission” or “Low Admission”.  High admission countries had at least 50,000 immigrants that had become permanent residents. Immigrant hopefuls of these nationalities would not be permitted entry unless the “lottery” was unable to be fulfilled by immigrants from the “Low Admission” nations who received preference. The purpose of this was to achieve more ethnic diversity within the United States. The gringa supposes this seems okay on the surface. Let’s dig a little deeper and see how it all works out.

These were the regions that comprised the “High Admission” and “Low Admission” zones considered in the new visa lottery system: Africa; Asia; Europe; North America (Canada and Greenland); Oceania (the geographical area including Micronesia, Fiji, all Polynesia, New Zealand, New Guinea, Melanesia, and Australia); South America; Mexico; Central America; and the Caribbean. In order for an immigrant hopeful to get a visa, not only do they have to come from a “Low Admission” country, but they also have to have a high school diploma and two years of work experience. If an immigrant hopeful was lucky enough to get a visa, their children and spouses were included. The United States considered family unity in this immigration reform policy and the gringa is happy ‘bout dat!

To get down to the specific numbers, America would issue about triple the number of visas than it did prior to the passage of this act. Most of these visas were issued to immigrants who were sponsored by employers. Guess what was required of these employers? They had to show documentation that they were unable to fill the position with an existing American citizen worker. Now, when will all these people stop griping about immigrants coming over here and stealing American jobs? It just ain’t so! Funny how the politicians know these laws exist to protect American jobs yet when an election year comes around some will campaign on headline grabbing, voter stimulating issues that are absolute lies, such as, “We’ve got to do something about immigration! Unemployment is so high and Joe Bob can’t get a job because those damn immigrants are pouring over the border and taking jobs away from good ol’ Americans!” Liar, liar, pants on fire. There are so many jobs that an humble immigrant is grateful to get paid to do that a spoiled American will turn their nose up at. That’s why most of these visas were issued!

For the first five years of this law, maximum limits were put in place. A total of 700,000 would be allowed in annually during this first five year period. Family based immigration was preferred so 465,000 visas were set aside for this type of immigrant. 55,000 visas were designated for spouses and aliens who had spouses or parents who had been legalized in the U.S. under the amnesty plan of 1986. 140,000 visas were set aside for skilled laborers to enter. 40,000 immigrants from “adversely affected” countries were given their own special group.

An example of “adversely affected” people would be the 1,000 displaced Tibetans who entered the country in 1991. On April 30, 1990, China announced the end of martial law in Tibet’s capital. For thirteen months Tibetans had suffered under military rule, harshly silenced and oppressed from any protest against the Chinese government. Military rule had existed in Tibet for decades but China cracked down in 1989 when Tibetans started getting too big for their britches and actually wanted a little freedom and independence, particularly in the area of practicing their religion, and began protesting in public. Too bad it was only 1,000 that made their way here. The gringa wishes all of them could have made it.

Did this immigration reform achieve its goal of creating more diversity in the American population? Prior to this bill, Asia and Latin America were the source nations for the majority of immigrants entering the United States. Under the provisions of this act, the American workforce was primarily supplied with Mexican and Filipino laborers. Indians, Canadians, Chinese and Africans made up the balance. Even today the Latin and Asian immigrants are the predominant ethnicities represented in the immigrant population. So it seems the goal of diversity wasn’t achieved. The most significant change was that fewer of these immigrants were poor.

However, the ethnic fabric of American medicine, science, education and sports was enriched as the result of this immigration reform. To keep these skilled workers in the country, deportation laws were relaxed as well as many stipulations that otherwise would have excluded an immigrant hopeful for qualifying for entry. One of these stipulations, which really seems to get xenophobes all worked up, is that the requirement to speak English was passed over. It makes no difference to the gringa. The gringa likes a challenge, especially a challenging conversation.

The ultimate culmination of the aftermath of this legislation is what we have today. For those who are not threatened by cultural and language differences of other people, the gringa being one those people, we shrug and say, “Who cares. Let ‘em stay as long as they’re minding their own business, working and caring for their family and community.” For the xenophobes, this is their worst nightmare. They have to suffer the indignity of pushing the number one button on their phones to select English. It’s all just so much more damn work and inconvenience that’s been created by these non-English speaking foreigners. It seems American government was socially evolving (except during campaign years when they regressed for the sake of garnering votes). Now the work is to help these hard-headed, scaredy-cat xenophobes evolve.

Sources:

http://library.uwb.edu/guides/usimmigration/1990_immigration_and_nationality_act.html

http://www.nytimes.com/1990/05/01/world/martial-law-ends-in-tibet-s-capital.html

http://immigrationinamerica.org/592-immigration-act-of-1990.html

http://cis.org/ImmigrationHistoryOverview

http://online.sfsu.edu/mcollier/AAS_write/aas%20essays/1990act.pdf

http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=19117

Photo credit: www.tibetanreview.net