Pardon Me, Is That An Asteroid On Your Finger?


The oldest rocks on Earth are zircon crystals. These highly refractive gemstones are often used to imitate diamonds or cubic zirconias in jewelry. Geologists have now announced the results of a study that has determined that zircons are quite possibly remnants of an ancient asteroid collision with Earth.

Other than simply having the pleasure of knowing you may have a bit of outer space asteroid glittering on your finger or about your ears, neck or wrist, what good is this information? Well, for one thing it dispels the previous theory that zircons were created by tectonic plate upheavals. But, more importantly, it helps scientists understand climate change. Yes, you heard the gringa right, climate change. A rock’s origins can often indicate what was going on with water on the planet at the time the rock was formed. Since zircon’s are produced by asteroids, Earthlings can also learn about the part of the cosmos that it originated from.

Researchers from Trinity College Dublin (Ireland) collected crystals from an impact crater that is considered “young”. Scientists wanted to compare the “young” crystals with older crystals from the Sudbury crater in Ontario, Canada. Sudbury is the best preserved impact crater on Earth and is about two billion years old.

The samples were taken to Stockholm’s “Swedish Museum of Natural History”.  Comparisons  concluded that the older crystals were the same as the younger ones. This then disproved the argument that the ancient zircon crystals could not have formed at the time the impact occurred. So, now we know that they could and probably did, making zircons the oldest rocks on Earth, as old as four billion years old which is the age of the oldest impact crater on our planet. The researchers also believe this supports the narrative that early Earth saw many more asteroid impacts than in its later life.

So, what this new determination tells mankind is that about four billion years ago an asteroid slammed into Earth. The crystals were able to form because water was present. Best estimates place the Earth’s age at four and a half billion years old so logic would assume then that it has always been a watery planet.  And what’s the big deal about an old, watery Earth?

Well, for one thing, water was required for life as we know it today to have evolved. But, the new discoveries about the crystals still does not solve the mystery of how life originated on planet Earth in the first place. And there are many theories on this subject that argue their own merits. Here are a few:

Electrified Primordial Soup – This school of thought believes that in the beginning of Earth’s life as a planet there was a life-giving electrical shock to the planet, such as lightning, that interacted with the ammonia, hydrogen and water on the planet. Lightning would deliver more than just a jolting electrical shock. The atmosphere, being filled with ammonia, hydrogen and water, would react with the electricity and create amino acids and sugars. These are the building blocks of microbial life.

Clay – A Scottish chemist has offered the theory that mineral crystals in clay is where all life began. He believes it is possible that clay, possibly at the bottom of the sea, was the perfect surface for molecules to organize themselves into patterns of amino acids and proteins which would later become DNA. Once the DNA evolved independently it no longer needed the clay medium but could organize itself on its own.

Hydrothermal Vents – Even now ocean biologists discover ecosystems surrounding hydrothermal vents deep within the Earth’s oceans that are teeming with life. Concentrations of molecules and minerals exist with the rocks surrounding these vents interacting with the hydrogen rich molecules provided by the vents action.

Panspermia – The hitchhiking life surviving the impact of an asteroid with Earth is yet one more possibility. If this theory is true, then the puzzle of the origins of life is not really to be worked out here on Earth, but to be solved by traveling the cosmos to find where it came from out there.

Although the many theories of how life originate on Earth are quite varied in their ideas, they all have one common thread… water. That would mean if the original microbes that evolved into humans over billions of years originally came from somewhere in outer space, to discover or “home planet”, Earthlings have to study planets that either have water now or had it at some time in their own history. By understanding this, a person then can understand the inspiration behind every space mission and why the space agencies of the world want to travel ever farther. They are not looking for little green men. They are looking for little molecules of water or ice. And one day, we may all call home a rock that exists in another galaxy or solar system.

 

Sources:  www.redorbit.com

www.geology.gsapubs.org

www.livescience.com

Image credits:  www.en.wikipedia.org

www.alluregems.blogspot.com

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Fashion, Big Headed Aliens & P.T. Barnum


In the first of the three posts regarding the extra-terrestrial connection with ancient Egypt, the gringa felt pretty confident that the singular event of one particular pharaoh presenting with a suspiciously bulbous head and large limbed body could be attributed to a congenital abnormality rather than extra-terrestrial hybridization. However, in Peru, there is more than one elongated skull to consider. And the multiple elongated skulls in Peru are not accompanied with the usual gigantism to consider the condition to be a classic and common birth defect. So, then, were there big headed aliens living in South America? Is that why the gringa’s caveman has such a big head?

South of Lima, in the same vicinity the Nazca lines can be found, is the Paracas Peninsula, home to the ancient Paracas civilization. Existing from 800-100BC, the Paracas were the precursors to the Nazca civilization. Eking out a life in the coastal desert of southern Peru, the Paracas became adepts at irrigation in order to manage their cotton crops.

As cotton producers, it is only natural that the culture would be textile driven. They were known to be master weavers who created complex and intricate textile patterns. Elaborately patterned clothing was how they denoted status and rank. This focus on clothing for the purpose of social identity may have been the result of being a culture with no written language.

Paracas history is defined by two eras: Cavernas (500-300BC) and Necropolis (300-100BC). The earlier period is noted as the time the culture wrapped their dead in simple fabrics then entombed them in underground caverns with pottery brightly decorated with animal motifs. The later Necropolis period shifted to more elaborate mass burials within prepared chambers featuring horizontal shelving carved into cavern walls. Mummies wore more decorative textiles and were placed in a fetal position. They would be buried with elaborate jewelry, sacred objects and staple foods such as maize. Many of these mummies presented with elongated skulls.

Why did Paracas people have big heads?  Were they aliens? Evidence indicates that they were wholly human and had purposely manipulated their skulls into these extraordinary conditions. The elongated skull mummies were usually found to be entombed with more valuable textiles and jewelry. Skull elongation could very well have been a fashion statement of the rich and famous. Perhaps my big-headed caveman is the descendant of Paracas nobility. That’s all the gringa needs; a caveman who thinks he’s the king.

How the heck could a primitive culture perform “cosmetic surgery” and change the shape of skulls? Well, the gringa discovers the Paracas were not as primitive as one might think. They were, perhaps, the originators of “trepanning”. That’s the old fashioned method of brain surgery where a doctor drills a hole in your skull to treat your psychiatric disorder by letting the evil spirits out or to relieve you of chronic headaches. These holes would then be patched with gold plates. Sweet.  So, it may very well have been within their medical skill to reshape a human skull. After all, over three hundred of these skulls were found in 1928 in an archaeological funerary dig in Paracas by Peruvian archaeologist Julio Tello.

Most historians have explained that the procedure to deform a skull in this fashion would begin in infancy. By cradle boarding and binding of the head, the skull would gradually be trained to an elongated shape. However, recent findings using modern methods and technology has revealed there may be more to the Paracas story than simply squeezing baby heads.

Recently it was widely reported that an assistant director for a Peruvian museum announced that DNA analysis of a Paracas skull revealed that the DNA is a mutation unknown to “any human, primate, or animal known” to our world. The inference being that perhaps there were other-worldly origins to the elongated Paracas skulls. So who is this Brien Foerster and what kind of place is this Paracas History Museum he works for?

The museum is actually not a museum at all. It is really just a private collection owned by a fellow named Juan Navarro. First of all, any search for a website is fruitless. I mean, really, what legitimate business doesn’t have a website or even a Facebook page? And, although a Facebook page listing pops up, um, there is nothing there!

But, aha! Brien Foerster has a Facebook page. His page reveals a passion for the paranormal and extra-terrestrial. Although the gringa does not doubt his sincerity and commitment to marching to the beat of his own drum, I do question his methods. True science follows a method that is inscrutable and allows its findings to be questioned and the reporters of data to have their credibility tested. Although he claims to have DNA evidence to support his extra-terrestrial Paracas theory, he has not published the source of such evidence in order for his claim to be verified. Although Mr. Foerster may use the title of “scientist”, the gringa believes he is misspelling the title. It should go something like this… Mr. Brien Foerster, pseudo-scientist.

The gringa’s only other option to determine the legitimacy of this museum, short of visiting it in person, is to look at reviews from visitors. One fella stopped by twice in the same day, during business hours, but it was closed. He tried again the next day and got the same results. However, by camping out on the front steps he did make contact with a neighbor who let him into the building and he viewed the skulls. Not the kind of security I would expect if your museum housed the only biological specimen that proved extra-terrestrial life on planet Earth.

Another museum goer informs the public that the museum’s entire collection can be viewed in about ten minutes.  Although another review claims this “not-a-museum”  museum can actually be toured in 5 minutes. A couple of reviews find the space alien connection “amusing”. And, if you give ol’ Juan (the museum’s owner who doubles as the guide) a sizable tip, he will let you see a secret skull that looks “vaguely human”. And for an extra five bucks you can take a photo of the exhibits.  Mm hmm.  I understand now why some reviews state “rip-off alert” in their descriptions of the place.

So, the best the gringa can determine as far as “facts” go is that:

  • A personal collection of old Paracas trinkets are exhibited in a tiny storefront and marketed as a “museum” by the owner/tour guide who has no background in history or archaeology.
  • The “museum’s” assistant director is reported to have a Bachelor of Science degree from a university in Canada but his personal Facebook page states that he only studied biology, chemistry, mathematics and physics at the University of Victoria, no degree indicated. So, nothing qualifies him as a geneticist, archaeologist or historian other than a personal obsession turned hobby turned business venture. You see, Mr. Foerster owns a tour guide company whose bread and butter is made from promoting the extra-terrestrial/Paracas skulls exhibited at the “Paracas History Museum” owned by his friend, good ol’ Juan.
  • When attempts by experts to validate the DNA claims have been made, Mr. Foerster has refused to reveal the details of the DNA research claiming that the analyst wishes to remain anonymous.

I see. It seems the Paracas elongated skull story of alien connections has the smell of P.T. Barnum all over it. So, did the Paracas elite have extraordinarily long, bulbous skulls? Yes. Were they extra-terrestrials? No, just very vain people.  It seems there is nothing new under the sun.

 

Sources & Image Credit:

www.ancient-origins.net

www.boundless.com

www.discover-peru.org

www.britannica.com

www.infowars.com

http://www.quora.com

doubtfulnews.com

www.tripadvisor.com

http://www.missiongalacticfreedom.wordpress.com

http://www.latinamericanstudies.org

 

 

 

 

 

What The Heck Happened In 1480BC?!


Ufologists and Ancient Alien theorists use as supporting evidence for their beliefs something called the “Tulli Papyrus”. They claim it is an ancient Egyptian record of a mass sighting of UFOs. Is the translation accurate? Is the artifact genuine? Authentic? True? Real? Well, dear reader, please join the gringa in the discovery of what we can determine to be true.

The original document is alleged to be a record dating back to the era of the reign of Thutmose III which would be around 1480BC.  The gringa is then curious as to what else was going on in the world around that time. I mean, if extra-terrestrials were so interested in Earthlings, would they have only buzzed the pyramids? Were there any other curious civilizations that may have been worth a peek?

Earth, 1480BC or thereabouts 

  • 1575BC Baby Moses discovered and adopted by Hatsheput who later became Egyptian Queen of Thutmose II; Hatsheput ruled Egypt for 22 years after her husband’s death
  • 1504BC – 1492BC Egyptian wars conquering Nubia (area of Upper Nile to the Red Sea) and Levant (Eastern Mediterranean coastal regions)
  • 1500BC – Aryans establish the Vedic civilization in India (The Aryans, from central Asia, spoke an Indo-European language and brought a polytheistic religion and religious literature known as the Vedas)
  • 1500BC-1400BC – The Rigveda, a Vedic Sanskrit religious poem or hym, is composed; Battle of the 10 Kings: Battle memorialized in the Rigveda; Mumum Pottery Period of Korea begins centered around an Asian culture noted for its simple pottery, elaborate burials and agriculture of millet, beans and rice.
  • 1481BC – Lunar eclipse period Saros 43 begins. During this cycle (which lasts about 18 years) 85 lunar eclipses occurred within about 2 1/2 years with an average of about three eclipses monthly. The longest one lasted almost 2 hours, shortest one lasted about half an hour. During this cycle
  • 1480BC Egyptian Queen dies and is succeeded by her stepson/nephew Thutmosis III. In his hatred of her he destroys her monuments and erases her name from official records. He seeks to kill Moses, her adopted son, who escapes to the desert. Thutmosis III begins the expansion period, conquering Palestine & Syria, claiming geography from the Upper Nile to the Euphrates 

Ancient Egyptians were dedicated to keeping detailed written records. So what exactly did Thutmose III record on this “Tulli” papyrus? Where was this artifact found? What exactly was it? Who translated it? What does it mean? The gringa just has to know these things before I accept someone else telling me it’s a record of an ancient Egyptian pharaoh’s eyewitness account of UFO visitation.

In 1933 a fellow by the name of Alberto Tulli visited Cairo. He worked for the Vatican Museum in the department of Egyptian antiquities. So, he was on the hunt for something interesting for the museum. He visited an antique shop, which was common practice in the old days when searching for antiquities. Tomb raiding was still going on so artifacts from ancient tombs would be sold to antique shops by the sticky-fingered burglars of all things old.

Tulli found a document he wanted to buy but the price was too steep. So, he did the next best thing, he copied the text of the document. Yes, Tulli was a plagiarist. That’s one strike against him in the gringa’s book. The gringa says, “Uh oh. So, there is no original to compare the translation with. Mm hmm. Red flag of doubt number one raised quite high.” So, Tulli claims he copied down the original hieratic script which then would have been translated into hieroglyphics and then translated into the language of your choice. So, basically a third hand copy of a document of dubious existence. Many of the present translations in English, as well as other languages, are filled with gaps where it is obvious that content has been deleted and no explanation has been given.

Twenty years later Italian Prince Boris de Rachewiltz claimed to be in possession of the original document. He said that he found it among papers belonging to the now deceased Tulli. He appointed renowned Egyptologist Etienne Drioton with the task of translating and transcribing the original document. Drioton was an expert Egyptologist on staff at the Cairo Museum as well as author of his own independent research and work, often being consulted by others worldwide on ancient Egyptian history and translation.

Translation of the document revealed that nothing within it could designate it as originating with Thutmose III’s dynasty. Experts accept the credibility and quality of the translation, however and do not consider it to be a hoax. Although the document is called a papyrus, it is not actually a papyrus. The original document in Rachewiltz’ possession was only the “original” copy made by Tulli of the papyrus he claimed to have found in the antique store. So, that takes us back to the original dilemma of having nothing to authenticate what Tulli wrote down. The world has only Tulli’s claim that he copied these words from an authentic papyrus and the Prince’s claim that he had found it. So, what was it Tulli wrote down that is so sensational? I have chosen anthropologist R. Cedric Leonard’s translation because it is closer to modern English:

“In the year 22, of the third month of winter, sixth hour of the day  (big blank space)… among the scribes of the House of Life it was found that a strange Fiery Disk was coming in the sky. It had no head. The breath of its mouth emitted a foul odor. Its body was one rod in length and one rod in width. It had no voice. It came toward His Majesty’s house. Their hearts became confused through it, and they fell upon their bellies. They [went] to the king, to report it. His Majesty [ordered that] the scrolls [located] in the House of Life be consulted. His Majesty meditated on all these events which were now going on. 

After several days had passed, they became more numerous in the sky than ever. They shined in the sky more than the brightness of the sun, and extended to the limits of the four supports of heaven (big blank space)… Power was the position of the Fiery Disk. 

The army of the King looked on, with His Majesty in their midst. It was after the evening meal when the Disks ascended even higher in the sky to the south. Fish and other volatiles rained down from the sky: a marvel never before known since the foundation of the country. And His Majesty caused incense to be brought to appease the heart of Amun-Re, the god of the Two Lands. And it was [ordered] that the events [be recorded for] His Majesty in the Annals of the House of Life [to be remembered] for ever.” 

When the credibility of the Tulli papyrus was tested, investigation began by Gianfranco Nolli who was Inspector to Egyptian Vatican Museum. He reported that the Tulli Papyrus was not Vatican property and could offer no suggestion as to the original document’s location. Dr. Walter Ramberg, Scientific Attache with Rome’s U.S. Embassy responded that Tulli’s original copy was presumed to be among documents bequeathed to his brother, a priest, after his death. However, upon the death of Tulli’s brother, the document became lost as his belongings were eventually dispersed among family members.

So, an original copy of a presumed authentic antiquity does not even exist. The case grows even more tenuous. The only credibility for this testament now lies in the word of Prince de Rachelwitz who had the document translated by Drioton. So, the question now is, “Did the darn thing ever exist in the first place?”

Well, the gringa will give ol’ Rachelwitz and Tulli the benefit of the doubt and just assume that, once upon a time, that papyrus in the antique shop was the real deal. But when the gringa reads the translation, I don’t see images of UFOs. I see images of a comet.

Ancient Egyptians were master astronomers. Around 1450BC ancient Egyptians began using sundials and had been constructing sun-aligned temples since 2000BC. They were expert stargazers along with their Babylonian neighbors. The gringa believes they would know the difference between a mass sighting of UFOs and a comet. Please follow my trains of thought:

  • A strange Fiery Disk was coming in the sky…” A fireball is seen in the heavens approaching. It is described as a disk because, from the Egyptian’s vantage point, they could not tell that it was a sphere, only two dimensional, round and flat.
  • “It had no head. The breath of its mouth emitted a foul odor. Its body was one rod in length and one rod in width…” It was circular, hence no “head”.  It smelled bad. Astronomers and scientists have concluded that comets are smelly. With many containing things like ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, formaldehyde, and methanol, if Egypt experienced a massive comet fly-by very near Earth and raining down tail debris that broke away and entered Earth’s atmosphere to eventually  shower the region, Egypt’s air probably smelled like a dead man’s fart. An ancient Egyptian “rod” measures, roughly, about 520 millimeters (or 20 inches). Um, not a very big and threatening UFO. Certainly the ancient Egyptians were squinting their eyes and holding a measuring rod up to the sky to measure the fireball in the background.
  • “After several days had passed, they became more numerous in the sky than ever. They shined in the sky more than the brightness of the sun, and extended to the limits of the four supports of heaven (big blank space)… Power was the position of the Fiery Disks.” This astronomical event lasted for days which is common when a comet passes near enough Earth to be seen by the naked eye or a telescope. The comet or meteorites were numerous and could be seen during the day as they burned up in the atmosphere. They filled the sky and could be seen in every direction. The largest, or “mother” of the comet cluster was oriented in the East (position of power).
  • “It was after the evening meal when the Disks ascended even higher in the sky to the south…” Within one day the orientation of the “mother” comet had traveled from the Eastern horizon to the Southern horizon, appearing higher (smaller) as it traveled further away.
  • “Fish and other volatiles rained down from the sky…” The gringa suspects that some tail debris of the comet crashed into the Nile and/or Euprates and the impact blew fish up into the air and they rained down upon the Egyptians.

So, the gringa does not think that, even if this record is authentic, that it is evidence of UFO visitation with ancient Egypt. What I believe is that there was a very close fly-by event of a comet or comet cluster. It came so close to Earth’s atmosphere that some of the debris in the tail section broke away, much of it burning up in Earth’s atmosphere. However, there were some bits that were incredibly large and at least one that impacted the Nile or Euphrates Rivers. The impact was so powerful that the splashback ejected fish into the air that rained down upon the area.

And just like the raining down of Egyptian fish, the gringa is very sorry to be a UFO party pooper, raining on the dear reader’s parade of the ancient Egyptian/extra-terrestrial connection. However, to be fair, I am still digging through the “evidence” to see if at least one item could create an “AHA!” moment. Stay tuned.

Sources & Image Credit:  www.npr.org, en.wikipedia.org, www.catchpenny.org, www.touregypt.net, www.thelatinlibrary.com, www.ancient-code.com