There REALLY IS Life On Mars (And The Moon)

What if the gringa told you that there was, without a doubt, life on the Moon and life on Mars? You might not believe me if you are a strict science enthusiast. You might believe me without hesitation if you’re a UFOlogist. You might hope that I’m telling the truth if you are a science-fiction fan.

Well, the gringa’s got exciting news for all of you. It IS true and there is proof and NASA testimony to back it up. But there’s a curious twist. The life discovered in both locations is not alien. It is very Earth in origin. What does this mean?

The strict science-evidence buff will say this of course means that NASA scientists have contaminated the regions they have explored. UFOlogists will claim it is trace evidence of mankind’s ancient extra-terrestrial ancestry. Science-fiction fans will simply shrug, nothing coming as a surprise to them.

The first thing to do is examine the decontamination procedures of NASA. Is it possible to launch space exploration vehicles that are not contaminated with even microscopic traces of Earth sourced materials? Nope. If complete decontamination is not possible, are there Earthly micro-organisms that can survive the harsh conditions of space travel, be delivered to an alien landscape and, ultimately, thrive only to be discovered later by exploration equipment? Yep.

NASA does not fly solo, determining unilaterally decontamination procedures before or after a space flight. About 50 years ago the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), comprised of UN members from the International Council of Science (ICSU), created the Treaty of 1967 which outlined certain protocols related to outer space travel and research. Contained within the document are guidelines for 5 categories of space missions, rated according to the risk of contamination posed.

  • Category 1: Any mission to celestial body that does not involve study of biological systems (like launching of an orbiting satellite).
  • Category 2: Any mission to any cosmic body within our Solar System where documentation of biological or chemical systems involves a remote chance of contamination (like when a satellite takes a sample of a vent plume to see what kind of gas it is without entering a cosmic body’s atmosphere).
  • Category 3: Any mission with a specific purpose of studying chemical or biological systems that may contain living organisms that poses a risk of introducing contamination to other cosmic bodies (as in taking a satellite sample that could involve an orbit or fly-by into a cosmic body’s atmosphere, elevating risk of picking up atmospheric particles that could cross-contaminate another planet, moon, etc.)
  • Category 4: Any mission that lands equipment on the surface of a cosmic body for the purpose of interacting with the natural processes of the extra-terrestrial body which will certainly create the possibility of introducing contaminates from Earth to a celestial body (this is what occurred with the Lunar Apollo and Mars Rover missions, the equipment at risk of contaminating the Moon and Mars with Earth organisms).
  • Category 5: Any mission that has equipment set down on an extra-terrestrial body and returns physical samples from an extra-terrestrial body to Earth. This creates 2 subcategories of Restricted and Unrestricted. If the host for the sample is rated a Class III stringent, in other words, not a host for possible life, the returning sample is considered Unrestricted. Any specimen returning from a cosmic body where life is possible, must go through severe decontamination and quarantine protocols.

But how effective are these guidelines? Well, considering what happened with the lunar missions in the 1970s, none of these protocols may even matter. Even though there were procedures for quarantines and decontamination, there was simply no baseline to compare against any data.

Astronauts, equipment and geological samples were quarantined in isolation units for 3 weeks after a “bath” in a super-bleach solution or a betadine wipe-down. An examination for biological, bacterial and chemical anomalies would determine whether or not there was any risk posed by releasing from quarantine. And what about alien contaminants that had dormancy periods longer than 21 days?

Not all returning Apollo mission “stuff” was scrupulously cleaned and monitored. You know the raft the astronaut crews rode in from the module that splashed down to the ship that picked them up? Yeah. It just got a wipe down with betadine and was then sunk in the ocean. And guess where Earthly biological life as humans know it is theorized to all begin? Yeah. In the oceans. Hm. That might not have been such a good idea. That raft may have just been converted to a lunar life nursery.

And you know the geological samples the astronauts returned? Those “Moon Rocks”? Yeah. They didn’t even get quarantined or a splash of Lysol. They were whisked away in a helicopter and taken to NASA laboratories in Houston. So that means a couple of pilots, their crew and an entire helicopter were not just contaminated but blazed a trail of contamination across the sky of half of the United States. The helicopter and crew were quarantined but what about all of that airspace? Yeah. There’s that.

So, basically, humans have already cross-contaminated the Moon and Earth. That means any samples that pop-up on either locale that indicate alien life from one or the other are suspect.

The same is also probably true for Mars. Chances are Earth-origin micro-organisms have probably already survived the trip,arrived and set up shop for the next millennia or two. And, if climate change continues on course, Earthlings may not be around to explain human life on Mars for the ETs that eventually discover them. They will be on their own to figure out that little conundrum.

Which poses the question. Is that how life on Earth originated? Are humans the ancestors of alien contaminates? Could be.

And what is NASA’s solution if samples are determined to be contaminated with biological matter that is a threat to humans? If a danger is discovered en-route back to researchers on Earth, their fall back plan is to fly the stuff into the Sun. Hmm. Yes, by all means. Let’s continue our practice of pollution and let the chips fall where they may.




Johnson Space Center

Image Source: Gizmodo

Video Source: Licensable

Will There Be Lunar Water Wars?

How important is the Moon? Well, pretty darn important. Without the Moon we could pretty much say good-bye to life on Earth as we know it. The relationship between the Moon and Earth results in our ocean’s tidal systems. The movement of the ocean oxygenates the waters, keeping them healthy and providing oxygen for all the life living in the seas. This movement is also like an air conditioner for the entire world, moving cold arctic waters throughout warmer ocean regions to cool overall water temperature.  Although the Sun and wind would affect waves and tides, our ocean’s would still see a reduction in tidal movement by about one-third.

Also, if there was no Moon to light up the sky every night, our year would become much longer. That’s because without the gravitational effect of the Moon, the Earth would rotate slower. Days would become shorter, nights longer and a year of 365 days stretch to more than one thousand days.

In addition to helping keep all of Earth’s life-forms alive, the Moon is also a great source for poets, artists, song-writers and conspiracy theorists. Even though we still have the Moon, lunar conspiracy theorists may have to find a new past-time.

The gringa is talking about the conspiracists who believe that the Moon is hollow. The hollow Moon theory came about as a result of some experiments conducted by NASA in 1969 during the Apollo 12 mission. They deliberately crashed a spacecraft on the Moon as part of a geological study to measure the vibrations of the Moon.

After setting up seismographic equipment, the team of astronauts climbed back into their spacecraft. When they reached the right coordinates they jettisoned their lunar module and recorded the seismic results. Impact occurred at nearly 4,000 mph and made an impact crater. Upon impact, the astronauts said that the Moon sounded like a ringing bell with reverberations lasting for about an hour.

Did this ringing sound and vibrations really mean the Moon is hollow? Are these lunar conspiracy theorists on the right track or over-reacting? Watch Vintage Space’s video below and find out.

Well, considering that some go even further and claim that an abandoned space alien spaceship is parked in the center of our “hollow” Moon, the gringa thinks maybe they have gone too far. After all, I don’t think the Moon is a cosmic garage. But it is true that the relationship between the Moon and Earth does contain many unexplained mysteries.

Physicists are puzzled by the size relationship. It’s simply much more enormous than mathematics and physics say it should be. To enjoy such consistency in its orbital and gravitational relationship with Earth, the Moon should be about 40 miles in diameter. The reality is that it’s more than 2,000 miles in diameter.  That makes it about one-fourth the size of Earth.

Hollow Moon theorists claim that because the Moon is actually hollow, it has less mass which solves this physics anomaly. This also feeds their add-on conspiracy that the Moon is artificial, constructed by ancient aliens, and not a natural satellite. But Moon Express will soon be blowing these conspiracies out of the sky.

Moon Express has gotten approval  from the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Defense, NASA, Federal Aviation Authority and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for a private Moon landing this year which will be the first step toward their goal of mining Moon minerals. The company will not be sending humans with pick-axes and spacesuits. They will engage in robotic mining. The MX-1E lander will launch with the aid of their Electron rocket. Once it lands the MX-1E will explore the Moon with an array of sophisticated instruments.

MX-1E won’t just be collecting geological samples. It will also be searching for water resources. Water will be the single most valuable natural resource on the Moon. It will be critical for future Moon missions as well as deep space missions.

Although it is very good news, indeed, that frozen water was discovered on the Moon, the gringa is very sad to hear one thing about this discovery. The founder of Moon Express, Bob Richards, had this to say,

“Water is the oil of the solar system, and the Moon has become the gas station in the sky.”

Unfortunately, Earthlings have been slaughtering one another and invading one another’s lands, fighting over control of the world’s oil supplies. The gringa hopes that the Moon doesn’t inspire the same kind of behavior. After all, the co-founder of Moon Express explains that space travel is the only way humanity can ensure the survival of the human race. How will we ever survive if we keep killing one another?


Moon Express

Silicon Beat

Inside Science

Scientific American

Huffington Post

Express UK

Video Credit:  Vintage Space

Image Credit:  NASA

A Year With The Stars

(Originally posted 1/6/17 on Read With The Gringa)

Now that the new year is in full swing, it’s time to mark all the significant events that you don’t want to miss. By now you’ve already missed the first meteor shower of the year, the Quadrantids, that happened in the wee hours of January 4th. Later that same day Earth arrived in its closest position throughout its annual orbit round the Sun, called Perihelion, despite the fact that it was cold as the dickens with most Earthlings experiencing their winter seasons. But don’t despair if you missed out. There is so much more to come!

Feb. 10/11 Penumbral Lunar Eclipse:  It may seem like a normal full Moon but it’s not. The Moon will be moving through the outermost part of the Earth’s shadow. Because this part of the shadow is so faint, the Sun’s reflection off the Moon is incredibly striking and bright. As the three celestial bodies align, rather than see the Moon blocked out by the Earth’s shadow, the reverse will happen, it will shine brighter. Look at this image and see the difference between an ordinary full moon and the Moon in penumbral eclipse:


Feb. 26 Annular Solar Eclipse: If you live in the geographical swath of Earth that stretches across southern and western Africa, most of South America, and the islands dotting that belt in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans, or if you happen to be in Antarctica, you will get to see the very best of this event. Some places, like the gringa’s H-town, won’t be able to see it at all. The eclipse will start around 6am Houston time and take about 5 hours to complete its cycle. However, you can’t just gaze up at the sky to see a proverbial “ring of fire” unless you want to come away blind and this be the last thing you ever see. To view a solar eclipse safely, you can always use a homemade pinhole projector, welders’ goggles or special solar filter viewing products. Check out Mr. Eclipse and discover how not to commit optic suicide while viewing a solar eclipse.  Here’s a map so you can see if you will be anywhere where you might get to see it.


April 22/23 Lyrid Meteor Shower:  This annual celestial event takes place during the time of a waning crescent Moon. That means the setting will be fantastic to watch meteors streak across the sky. Although the Lyrid Meteor Shower season can start lighting up the sky as early as April 16 and last as late as April 25, the 22 & 23 are the days where activity should peak. So, as long as it’s not cloudy or raining, all you have to do is sit outside anytime after nightfall and watch the show until daybreak.

What direction should you look? Well, the event takes its name after constellation Lyra. That’s the direction from which the meteors emerge. Look toward the star Vega, it’s one of the brightest stars in the sky in April. To spot it, look directly overhead for a brilliant star that looks bluish-white. Folks in the Northern Hemisphere have the best seats for this show but just about everyone in the world has a chance at a peek.  Here’s a star map to help you find Vega so you will be looking in the right direction:


May 5/6 Eta Aquarid Meteors: If you didn’t get to see anything exciting with April’s meteor showers, maybe you will see something in May. The Eta Aquarid meteor shower season lasts from April 19 until May 28. However, the time of most activity will be May 5 & 6. Well, more specifically, the week hours on the morning of May 6. These meteors are the product of dust and debris from Halley’s Comet. During this time, Earth is passing through the path this famed comet travels around the Sun. This happens twice every year. The second event occurs in October. It takes the comet about 76 years to complete its orbit around the Sun. So, we are seeing rocks burn up in our atmosphere that have been hanging out on their own for nearly a century, at least. But, that’s just how long the rock has been separated from the comet. As to a meteorite’s true age, there’s really no telling. When you witness a shooting star, you could be watching the end of millions of years of history. To look for these meteors look toward the Aquarius constellation. Eta Aquarii, the namesake of this event, will be the brightest star of Aquarius. Here’s a star map to help you:


Aug. 7/8 Partial Lunar Eclipse: This will be visible in most of southern/eastern Asia, Europe, Africa and Australia. The eclipse will begin around 4pm UTC with maximum effect happening around 6:20pm UTC.

Aug. 12/13 Perseid Meteors:  This is one of the brightest and most active meteor showers throughout the year.  The entire season lasts from July 17 until August 24 but these are the best 2 days to be expected from the peak period of Aug 9-13. If you can, get out of town on a really dark night, settle down on a blanket and wait for the sky to light up right before dawn. These meteors are debris from the Swift-Tuttle Comet and can be viewed by looking toward the Perseus constellation. Folks in the Northern Hemisphere should look at the zenith of the northeastern sky. Here’s an image of the Perseus constellation:


Aug 21 The Great American Eclipse: A total solar eclipse will be center attraction across the entire U.S. Refer to Mr. Eclipse listed in the event for Feb. 26 to find out how to watch it safely.

October 8 Draconid Meteor Shower:  The debris left behind by dust from comet 21 P/Giacobini-Zinner makes for a spectacular light show but only for certain lucky people who live in North America, Europe and Asia. The further south you go toward the equator, the less likely it is you will get to see any action. For the best opportunity, look toward the 2 brightest stars of the Draco the Dragon Constellation, Eltanin and Rastaban. If you can find the Little Dipper, Draco is close by. Take a look:

Draco2 (1).jpg

October 20/21 Orionid Meteors:  Right on the heels of one fantastic meteor shower event is another. The Orionid meteors are blasting away throughout all of October but these two nights are the biggest shows. The best time to start watching is right after midnight. More dust from Halley’s Comet is making an encore appearance. Everyone in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere is invited to watch. It’s as easy as looking right overhead no matter where you are.

Nov 17/18 Leonid Meteor Shower:  If you want to have a chance at seeing light shows from burning space debris created by the Tempel-Tuttle Comet, this show promises about 20 meteors per hour.  People in both hemispheres can view the meteors starting around midnight on Nov. 17. No particular direction is better than another. Just get out of town, away from city lights. Pack a few sleeping bags so you can snuggle down in comfort and warmth, then lie on your back and enjoy the show.

Dec 3/4 Supermoon: End the year with a fabulous Supermoon. It will appear about 12-14% larger than normal. Being nearer the Earth will also mean the Moon will have a stronger tidal effect. If you have a chance, get to a beach and view three cool natural events, a Supermoon, amazing high tide and super-low neap tide. As the Supermoon pulls the tide further away from the beach than normal, there’s no telling what kind of treasure might be found!

The gringa hopes you are all excited about an interesting year ahead with cool space stuff to do every single month! Get out and enjoy the stars with someone you love! Pack a midnight picnic, disconnect from devices, lay back, relax and be patient. The show will begin in its own time!


Image Credits:  Fine Art America

CNN Philippines

Fall Of A Thousands Suns


Young Mr. Daniel’s Moon Musings

One of the gringa’s dear readers shares the blog post over breakfast with his children. Thank you so much for the support, Neil. Now, Neil has reported that his 12-year-old wants to know why the heck no one seems interested in the poor, little Moon anymore. His son thinks we are simply wasting the opportunity of a lifetime for mankind to have an outpost that would make it easier to explore the Universe.

The gringa is impressed with such matter of fact, forward thinking. It does make perfect sense to establish a pathway of outposts. Rather than have to travel for months at a time, space explorers could station hop. So, indeed, why does an Earth orbiting space station receive all of our efforts? Is there any interest in a lunar outpost? Here’s what the gringa has found out.

The Arguments FOR A Lunar Orbiting or Fixed Base Station:

  1. Not only could all the research currently performed on the International Space Station (ISS) be done on a lunar orbiting station, but scientists would also have access to the surface of the Moon for hands-on terrestrial studies.
  2. Long-term opportunity from an orbiting lunar station would eventually result in the establishment of a lunar base on the ground. Reconnaissance for suitable habitat locations could be performed. Hothouses for growing food could be constructed. Eventually human habitats could be perfected.
  3. Astronomy studies would be optimized with telescopes that are much closer to targets.
  4. An orbiting lunar station would become a gateway to the rest of the solar system. Interstellar travel would be empowered, no longer requiring the massive amounts of fuel payloads in order to exit the Earth’s gravity and atmosphere.
  5. An orbiting lunar station could also serve as an intermediary warning system for near approaches of comets or asteroids. They could, perhaps, even be equipped to intervene should one pose a threat to Earth.
  6. Of course, ambitious politics would claim the importance of remaining relevant and dominant (pfft).
  7. Practice makes perfect. So, if the goal is to explore the far reaches of space, starting with a Mars base, having a trial run making a go of it on the Moon makes perfect sense. Technologies for constructing habitat, like 3D printers, can be tested and perfected before investing in a Mars mission, raising the potential for success on the first go round.
  8. To evolve and advance into an interplanetary species could result in unifying the world and contribute to world peace. Most wars are fought to gain dominance over the Earth’s limited supplies of natural resources. With the Universe within reach to all, such goals seem childish and unnecessary. And to achieve such a monumental goal will require cooperation of the best and brightest throughout the world.

What A Lunar Station Needs

  1. Radiation Protection: The ISS has shielding to protect it from Earth’s powerful magnetosphere. Further out, a lunar orbiting station or an outpost on the Moon’s surface would need sufficient protection from massive radiation exposure.
  2. Micro-Meteoroid Protection: Even a tiny piece of flying debris can be deadly if it pierces any protective layer, whether that layer be protecting a human or habitat.
  3. Supplies: Whether it is food, medicine, or power, supplies are necessary. Being so far from home means developing the technology for self-sustainability.

The Challenges

  1. Radiation shielding is heavy. All that heavy stuff would have to be transported. That would be very expensive.
  2. Rescue and escape from the current ISS can happen quickly. Crews can launch home in the Soyuz capsule and arrive home in a few hours. Time is critical especially for medical emergencies. Emergency transfer from the Moon would take days.
  3. Although the Sun is the primary source of the radiation challenge, it is also the primary source of power. Re-juicing solar panels on the ISS is easy with day/night cycles that occur every 90 minutes. On the Moon, a station in orbit or on the ground would go without sunlight for two weeks on a monthly basis. Alternatives to solar power reliance is a must.
  4. Climate: Apollo mission astronauts performed their duties in sealed spacesuits and space capsules. Yet, when they arrived home they all had toxic lunar dust in their respiratory systems. Inhalation most likely occurred when returning to the confines of their capsules and taking off dusty space suits.

Is There Interest?

The Russians are interested. They hope to achieve a semi-permanent lunar base by 2030. NASA is interested but wants to build a station on the dark side of the Moon. That means privacy away from the prying eyes of the public with high-powered telescopes. They are looking at “libration points” as part of the plan to get a manned crew to Mars. Libration points, also called Lagrangian points, are sweet spots in space where gravitational forces between two objects in space create a sweet spot to park a space craft. The Moon is considered just one leg of the journey, being a prime libration point. NASA has tentatively put a $10 billion price tag on a Moon base plan with hopes of mission accomplishment by 2022. It seems that the old space race between the US and Russia has been revived.

So, my dear, young Mr. Daniel, your bright, intelligent mind is on the cutting edge of space exploration ideas. By the time a US lunar station becomes a reality, you will be old enough to contribute your own talents and skills. Hone them and become part of the dream. Study math and science and geology and medicine and botany and robotics. Let your musings take you to the Moon, young Mr. Daniel!

Sources:  Forbes

Daily Mail UK

National Geographic


Image Credit: Thornhill Radio & TV







You Lost What?!!


Tell me it ain’t so, NASA. Tell me that you didn’t really lose the original tapes of the Moon landing. I mean, what were you thinking? The one time in ALL of human history that a human being sets foot on a patch of ground that IS NOT Earth and you don’t have the best proof that it really happened in some sort of Fort Knox type security vault? Really? You lost them?

The gringa is torn between being hopping mad and curiously perplexed. Since I recently discovered just how bad being mad is, I will try to cultivate stronger feelings of perplexity.  But NASA didn’t just “lose” the tapes. No, they ERASED THEM! They recorded over the original footage. Anything we see today is a “restored version of the original”. In other words, a copy, a cheap imitation, something that ain’t quite true.

Again, the gringa has to ask NASA, “Who in their right mind ERASES and TAPES OVER the original footage of the most historical moment of mankind’s modern history? Who, NASA? Who?” I mean, the gringa hasn’t even taped over my oldest son’s ballet recital when he was 3-years-old and thought dressing up in a pink sequin outfit with bunny ears and a cottontail and performing on stage was the coolest thing ever. I still have that tape. I don’t even own a VCR anymore but I STILL HAVE THE TAPE! Are you kidding me NASA?

You know what this does for the gringa? It calls into question all the validity of the Moon landing altogether. The gringa clings tenaciously to the hope that the Moon landing was not staged. The gringa wants to believe in the noble cause and purpose of America’s space agency. The gringa does not want to believe that her government was willing to stage a bit of Cold War propaganda with NASA when it was a fledgling organization. But stuff just keeps coming up that makes the gringa continue to scratch her head and think that Moon landing conspiracy theorists may have gotten this sordid tale right.

Why in the world would the original footage ever be considered unimportant enough to tape over? Unless it was footage of a staged event that modern videography experts can now pick apart detail by detail with sophisticated technology and techniques to expose it as a fraud. The gringa is trying so hard not to feel anger.

So, basically, way back when, on July 16, 1969 President Lyndon B. Johnson (LBJ) and his wife, our First Lady affectionately called Lady Bird, watched Apollo 11 launch from Kennedy Space Center in Florida, hurtling Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins toward the Moon, maybe. Four days later what we have always believed the world has seen, a grainy video of Neil Armstrong “Moon walking” and saying those famous words, “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind” was the next big event after the launch. And the next big event after that? In 2006, nearly 40 years later, NASA fesses up that the original video cannot be located.

After an investigation, led by Rich Nafzger, NASA discovered that the original footage had been part of a batch of videos that had been magnetically erased and re-used. My, how convenient. Their excuse was that the original video had only been intended for live broadcast, never for re-airing. Why? All throughout television history live broadcasts have been re-aired. And wouldn’t scientists want to preserve the true video feed of the one and only FIRST time a human has walked around on another surface other than Earth? I mean, apart from historical value, isn’t there other scientific, safety and training value to such video?

So now what we see are copies originally furnished by CBS News that were restored by Lowry Digital. The new versions have cleaned up the images to be more clear. So what of the footage of following Moon landings, five more that occurred between 1969-1972? Does NASA have original video footage of astronauts gallivanting on the surface of the moon for those? And who was this Lowry Digital? What kind of reputation did this Lowry production company have?

Here are all the Moon missions when an astronaut walked on the Moon’s surface:

Apollo 11 – Neil Armstrong & Buzz Aldrin walk on the Moon:

Apollo 12 – Pete Conrad & Alan Bean walked on the Moon.

Apollo 14 – Alan Shepard and Edgar Mitchell walked on the Moon.

Apollo 15 – David Scott & James Irwin walked on the Moon.

Apollo 16 – John Young & Charles Duke walked on the Moon.

Apollo 17 – Eugene (Gene ) Cernan & Harrison (Jack) Schmitt walked on the Moon.

(Apollo 13 – Uncompleted mission with a harrowing crisis and narrow escape and recovery)

Lowry Digital has restored all sorts of movies like Bambi, The Robe and Star Wars. Considering the quality of science fiction productions during 2009 when the original Moon landing tapes were restored, sure, it’s possible to have faked the production. But then there’s the reality that the original footage of five other Moon walking missions are in existence. So, the gringa believes that where conspiracy theorists are concerned, the status of the first Moon landing’s original footage does, indeed, make for good fodder for the conspiracy gristmill. However, when you weigh it against the other videos NASA has that proves that astronauts actually did land and walk around on the Moon throughout the following decade, the balance tips in favor of NASA credibility.

Whew. That was close. The gringa is sure glad she followed that little trail to a happy conclusion!

Sources:  NASA



Image Credit:




The Earth v. Theia Smackdown

In just a few days, November 14, the Moon is going to be a Supermoon. There are lots of opportunities to see a Supermoon but the super-super-super-ness of this particular Supermoon won’t happen again for 70 years. What better time to pen a post that explains just how our Moon ended up in the orbit it’s in around our pretty, blue planet? You see, despite the fact that we are all accustomed to that big, gray rock circling us every day, how it got there to begin with is actually a mystery. Earth and her moon have not always been a couple.

Scientists think that Earth had a major smackdown with a protoplanet millions of years ago that resulted in it becoming our Moon. A protoplanet is a large body orbiting around a sun, or star, that eventually develops into a regular planet. In other words, it’s a hunk of rock that eventually transforms into creating its own motion that affects the events and natural environment of its surface. So, although the Moon has its own motion, it is controlled by the Earth’s gravity. Interestingly, although the Moon is not yet a planet in its own right, it does affect environmental events on Earth, our ocean tides.

But the gringa has gotten sidetracked. Back to just where the heck the Moon came from. So, a protoplanet slams into Earth yet is not obliterated. Researchers suspect that for a hunk of rock to survive such a collision it would have had to have originated from a protoplanet the size of Mars. Scientists have named this theoretical Moon-producing protoplanet Theia. Here’s a picture of Earth next to Mars and Mars next to the Moon. Picture the middle guy slamming into the big guy and ending up the little guy.



Now, the gringa wants to know that if this is how it happened, how did the Moon become so perfectly round? I don’t know about you, but whenever I have seen any rock get pulverized, I don’t find any fragments that are spherical. So, the gringa takes her skepticism further. What kind of rock is the Moon?

Well, the Moon actually consists of geological material that can be found on Earth. What this means is that an impact theory between Earth and Theia doesn’t really make sense. The Moon would then consist of Earth stuff and foreign Theia stuff. But, the Moon’s just made of Earth stuff.

Another thing that keeps scientists scratching their heads about the Earth-Theia impact theory is where the Moon is. If it was a piece of space debris from an impact, the Moon should orbit around Earth’s equator. Instead, it orbits elliptically at a tilt, five degrees off our equator.

Scientist Sarah Stewart at the University of California thinks she has solved these problems. She theorizes that:

  • Number one, the clash between Earth & Theia involved much more energy than previously thought.
  • This caused the Earth to spin like crazy, much faster than it does now.
  • Some of the debris was vaporized, meaning melted Earth material fused with Theia and Theia material fused with Earth. The Earth and Moon are actually mixed together. So, when it seems that the Moon is only comprised of Earth materials, in a way that’s true but yet not all true. The Earth and the Moon are BOTH made up of Earth & Theia stuff.
  • When the collision first happened, causing the Earth to spin wildly, our axis pointed right at the Sun and we only had a 2 hour day.
  • As Theia a.k.a. the Moon stabilized in its orbit around the Earth equator, its affect was to gradually slow the rapid spinning of the Earth by affecting the tidal movements of the oceans.
  • As the Earth slowed down the Earth’s axis also shifted which caused Theia a.k.a. the Moon to no longer orbit around our equator.

Now, it would have taken more than 10 million years for all of this to happen. But, it all makes perfect sense to the gringa. Except for the round bit. Why is there not a big dent still visible in the Earth and the Moon? And despite the fact that I really like the name Theia, I don’t have any plans to call the Moon anything other than the Moon.


Image Credit:






Lunar Nips & Tucks

The gringa has reached that age where she critically examines the tiny lines around her eyes and notices the effects of gravity slowly creating those puppet lines around my mouth as my cheeks droop a bit lower every year. And then there’s that little turkey wattle dewlap flap hanging under my chin and drawing attention to my scrawny chicken neck. Despite my flaws, the gringa is not interested in a facelift. Our Moon, however, gets one every so often whether it likes it or not.

Yep, about every 80 thousand years or so the Moon is transformed into something unrecognizable from its former self. Does this amazing facelift happen overnight? No. It experiences its own form of nips and tucks gradually. Every year numerous comets, asteroids and meteors crash into our Moon and create almost 200 new craters.

If you visit NASA’s photo gallery you can find an array of Moon images dating back to 2009 when the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft began its mission. It has been mapping the Moon’s surface for years. Comparisons of the collection of images that span five years’ worth of work tells the gringa that mapping the Moon will be a never-ending job seeing as how everything is always changing.

An historical super-moon is scheduled to arrive around November 16. Chances are newspapers and cyberworld will be filled with images of our Moon as it appears in 2016. This is the perfect opportunity for a Moon project to see if amateur stargazers can detect any changes. Below are a pair of 2009 images of our Moon you can use for comparison:


NASA’s Astronomy picture of the day February 6, 2009


NASA’s detailed 2009 image of the Apollo 17 Moon landing mission site



Yahoo News

Image Credits:  NASA