Praising Mistakes Of The Past Is Insanity


(Originally posted 1/12/17 on Read With The Gringa)

The gringa wants to conclude her studies on the history of U.S. immigration by examining a particular policy that was enacted by President Dwight D. Eisenhower’s administration in 1954. The incoming Trump administration has threatened a revival of a deportation policy that has already proven disastrous. Again, if the definition of insanity is doing the same thing, over and over, yet expecting different results, is the incoming group of politicians all insane? Is a madman about to take the helm of U.S. government? Will the lunatics be running the asylum in less than two weeks? Let’s take a look at Operation Wetback and see if parallels of this policy should be supported or resisted if Trump attempts to resurrect this dead beast.

After World War I, the nation was hurting for cheap labor, particularly in agriculture. They hoped to fill this void by exploiting imported labor groups from Mexico. As non-citizens, such groups could successfully be exploited because they would not have political representation, other than any interest that their country of origin might have.

However, we learned through the Bracero Program of 1942, that Mexico’s government was also exploiting its own people who participated.  Legal Bracero’s were subject to withholdings from their earnings being kept by the U.S. and Mexico to pay for certain provisions of their Bracero work-visas. Provisions that should have provided benefits but both governments simply kept the money. This resulted in the U.S. not seeing the numbers needed of voluntary migrant workers participating.The gringa doesn’t blame Mexicans for rejecting participation in the program.

But industry will always find a way to meet its own need. Workers who need to make a buck will always find a way around government over-reach into their pocket. The result was that illegal immigration increased and farmers were only too happy to employ them. And, for a time, the US looked the other way while it was convenient and the citizens were satisfied with cheap produce abundantly supplied to their local markets.

But, in the early 1950’s Americans were tiring of being so tolerant to illegal immigrants who were picking those beans they enjoyed with dinner. Eisenhower satisfied their indignation with Operation Wetback. Deportation records indicate that more than one million immigrants were removed from the country. Now, considering that a racial slur was used in an official government record entitled deportation legislation, there is no doubt in the gringa’s mind that this piece of work was racially motivated and wholly approved by a racist white majority population. For shame, America.

But that’s how elitist white majority capitalism works. Exploit without a conscience those with melanin as cheap labor. Then, when your done with them, demonize them and kick them out, even if it means destroying their lives and families.

Once the announcement was made June 9, 1954, that this was the official policy of the U.S., aggressive raids and deportation forces focused their attention on Arizona and California. Law enforcement used methods like roadblocks and checkpoints. Eventually these methods spilled over into Texas as well. Sweeps even reached as far as the states of Washington, Illinois, Kansas and Missouri. Within a couple of months the operation wound down and then, once funding ran out, the government proudly announced that the “problem no longer existed”. Yeah, right. Government officials just didn’t want to admit that no matter how many people they deport, there is really no way to secure a border like the US southern border. It is extensive, porous, and rugged. Trump thinks a wall will work? He must have never heard about the ingenuity of drug smuggling tunnels.

Now, to an American Nationalist, Operation Wetback sounds like a prime example of how to deal with undocumented aliens that are in the country. Well, the gringa says, “Not so fast.” Before you accept your initial knee-jerk reaction, get down to the nitty-gritty, the nuts and bolts, the actual “what exactly happens” kind of stuff.

Currently, there are well over 12 million people in the US with undocumented status. Many of these people enjoy this status through no fault of their own. How many unscrupulous immigration attorneys do you think have taken advantage of vulnerable immigrants, taking their money and never doing a thing to manage their legal paperwork properly? Yeah, that’s a problem. That’s a problem with AMERICAN criminals, not immigrant criminals. Then you have people who have fled their native countries in terror, arrived here undocumented and have the right to apply for refugee status or asylum. In their desperation to get out alive during dangerous internal strife, there is simply no time to secure documents. Proper channels to do such a thing may not even exist. Even if they did, the very people being victimized by their government and needing to escape are also the last people such a government would grant travel documents to. Those are the kind of people our country EXPECTS to arrive undocumented. And how many immigrants do you think have been committed to maintaining a legal status only to fall victim to overcrowded immigration courts who have let their case fall through the cracks? The reality is that such things happen. Sometimes, it’s the US that is to blame.

For all of these reasons, undocumented immigrants have the right of due process as every other citizen and legal immigrant. And if you think we should just forego due process, then you are saying that we should just do away with the foundations of the Declaration of Independence, Constitution and Bill of Rights. The rights of undocumented immigrants are all wrapped up in the very logic and reason behind how every human being enjoys inalienable and civil rights in the US. Are you willing to put your own liberty, freedom and security at risk simply because you have a problem with immigrants?

What kind of country do you really want to live in? Do you really want to live in a country where you have your drive to work interrupted by roadblocks, searches of your car and demands to see your documents? So, you say, “No big deal if you are a citizen.” Once again, the gringa says, “Not so fast.” There’s this little thing called the Civil Rights Act. Think about how roadblocks and ID demands could infringe upon the equal protection of minorities. Take this scenario for example:

The gringa and her caveman are driving separate cars home after picking one up at the repair shop. The gringa reaches the roadblock only to realize that she forgot her ID at home. The cop looks at her white skin, hears her flawless English, albeit with a Texas twang, and waves her on through. Right behind her is the caveman, a US citizen for more than a quarter of a century. He realizes his wallet is in his wife’s handbag because he always wears pocket-less soccer shorts and refuses to carry a man-purse. The cop sees his brown skin and hears that Peruvian accent and then orders him to get out of the vehicle. The car is impounded and the caveman heads downtown, detained for further questioning.

If the caveman is lucky, the gringa will bring his ID and clear everything up. But they are still out of pocket for paying to get the car out of impound. Not to mention the indignity and hassle. But what if the gringa had been out of town? Would it be possible that injustice could occur and the caveman could find himself shipped off to Peru? Is it possible that many like him, US naturalized citizens or legal immigrants, could lose everything if such policies were enacted? The evidence is that many already have.

When Eisenhower started a racist dragnet across the country, caught in that web were many who had every right to be in this country. Yet they were deported. So, in addition to hundreds of unnecessary deaths by heat exhaustion and drowning, the lives of US citizens were destroyed simply because of the color of their skin, the ethnic quality of their name, and, perhaps, the existence of an accent.

If the operation had truly been a success, rather than funds peter out, Congress would have voted for another round. Citizens would have expected enforcement to continue. Instead, US government spin doctors churned out the propaganda that it was such a resounding success there was no more need for deportation round-ups. And it seems that those spin doctors are hard at work for the future Trump administration. Because people who are afraid of melanin can’t admit they are fraidy-cats and bigots can’t admit that bigoted actions are a failure.

So, if you are an advocate for inhumane treatment of fellow humans, ripping apart families, infringing upon the Civil Rights of all citizens and guests to this country, and destroying the lives of some of your fellow Americans, then I am sure that you will be just fine with Trump’s future plans. As long as you are not personally affected, you could care less about what might happen to those “damn furriners”. The gringa would like to ask such people, “You claim, with great pride, to be a citizen of the ‘home of the brave, right? Then why are you so afraid of people with melanin and speak with an accent? Why not grow a pair and make your country proud. Be brave. There are better solutions to this very complicated immigration problem our nation has.”

Sources:

Immigration To United States

Library Of Congress

www.factcheck.org

Politifact

National Public Radio

America’s Voice

Image Credit: felicitysmoak.info.tm

The Secret Success of the Swiss


Although Silicone Valley in the United States gets worldwide accolades as the primary source for innovation, Switzerland may actually have left the gringa’s country in its dust.  In fact, it may have been running circles around every technologically advanced nation since 2008 and no one has been aware of it. The gringa supposes that Switzerland simply prefers a low profile and is loathe to toot its own horn.

To discover just how amazing Swiss minds are, you have to dig into the reports generated by Cornell University, the graduate school INSEAD that has campuses in France, Singapore & Abu Dhabi, as well as reports generated by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).  Their collaborative efforts can be seen in an annual report called the Global Innovation Index. There is more to making the list than simply coming up with cool gizmos and devices. To be a winner a country must also lead in areas of: business sophistication, creativity, commitment to knowledge and creativity, infrastructure, and research.  The latest top 10 winners:

  1. Switzerland
  2. Sweden
  3. United Kingdom
  4. United States
  5. Finland
  6. Singapore
  7. Ireland
  8. Denmark
  9. Netherlands
  10. Germany

But why does Switzerland keep winning? It seems that Switzerland consistently delivers with regard to patents, technological inventions and programs that recruit and develop new talent.

Patents:  The European Patent Office  recorded, on average, 873 patent applications for every one million Swiss inhabitants. The Netherlands and Sweden came in second and third. It seems that the current generation of Nords are incredibly creative.

Inventions:  What might some of these patents be for with regard to the latest developments in technology?  The Nords put their money where their reputation is, investing heavily in Swiss entrepreneurs and aspiring inventors who have made their country proud with products like: Mouse Scanner by CES; Doodle -digital scheduling platform serving 20 million people (for a culture linked with precision timekeeping this comes as no surprise to the gringa); CleanSpace One, a robot waste collector for use in ridding the galaxy of space junk developed by Swiss Space Center at Lausanne’s Federal Institute of Technology.

Recruitment & Development: Switzerland aggressively seed funds entrepreneurs. For example, a student at Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich, Johannes Reck, became CEO of his own start-up while still living in the dorms of Switzerland’s premier technical school of higher learning. He launched GetYourGuide, an online service to help people plan holiday and destination activities. Soon after launch, rather than Reck pitching his idea to investors, a local bank actually approached him and made an offer for seed funding. Within four years Reck’s idea has brought in more than $10 million in revenue to a country that invested $2 million in a Swiss citizen with an idea.

Entrepreneur hopefuls or geeks who have dreams of hitting it big with the next trendy gizmo or gadget, you may want to set your eyes on immigrating to Switzerland. But don’t expect it to be a short, easy road to travel. To become a naturalized Swiss citizen you must:

  • Live in Switzerland for at least 12 years before applying for citizenship.
  • Any years spent living in Switzerland between the ages of 10-20 count as double.
  • In 2017 a new law may come into effect reducing the required number of years to 10.
  • Obey Swiss law and customs.
  • Pose no danger to national security.
  • Meet the additional citizenship requirements of your local municipality.
  • Submit citizenship application & schedule an interview.
  • Pass citizenship test that is either written or verbal.

In addition to the basic requirements, living in Switzerland is not cheap. However, one aspect to a high standard of living is the corresponding quality of life enjoyed. To maintain a competitive edge in a society of high achievers, being multi-lingual is almost a necessity. There are four languages commonly spoken within Switzerland and to succeed in business, entrepreneurs would do well to master all four: English, French, German, and Italian.

One great thing for up and coming innovators in Switzerland is that this tiny country boasts a marvelous business practice. The Swiss regard mentorship very highly. There are frequent events that pair entrepreneurs with mentors as well as investors. These are two key relationships that virtually guarantee success for a bright, ambitious young adult. So, young students and aspiring CEOs, rather than look westward toward the sunken landscape of Silicone Valley, the gringa says lift your eyes upwards toward the heights of the Swiss Alps. That is where success secretly abides.

Sources:

www.businessinsider.com

www.finfacts.ie

www.swissinfo.ch

thenextweb.com

Image Credit: lauralyndlt.files.wordpress.com

 

POWs, MIAs, “We Will Never Forget” Part IV, H-J


In continuation of my blog post of Friday, August, 8, 2015, I will continue to list the names of the servicemen still unaccounted for from the Vietnam and Korean conflicts. The gringa will kindly remind dear readers that clicking on incident date, name, branch of service or side note will take the reader directly to a page regarding that serviceman that is linked with the website www.pownetwork.org. So, in honor of those POWs and MIAs considered with the November 9, 2000, immigration policy known as the “Bring Them Home Alive Act”, the following men are not forgotten:

17-Jul-72   HAAS LEON F.    USN

24-Jul-68    HACKETT HARLEY B.    USAF    (Photo)

06-May-69    HAGAN JOHN ROBERT    USMC

10-Jun-65   HAGEN CRAIG L.   ARMY   Last seen on ground, under fire

09-May-70   HAIGHT STEPHEN H.   ARMY

02-Aug-65   HAIL WILLIAM WARREN   USAF

08-Mar-71   HALE JOHN D.   ARMY

06-Feb-67   HALL DONALD J.   USAF

12-Apr-69   HALL FREDERICK M.   USAF

15-May-75   HALL GARY L.   USMC   Mayaguez Incident loss 05/15/75

10-Jun-65   HALL WALTER L.   ARMY   Last seen on ground, under fire

22-Mar-71   HALL WALTER R.   ARMY

11-MAR-68   HALL WILLIS ROSELLE   USAF   Not on Official DIA list – TDY CIV/LOCKHEED

24-Mar-67   HALLBERG ROGER C.   ARMY

28-Sep-68   HALPIN DAVID P.   USN

21-Apr-67   HAMILTON ROGER DALE   USMC

14-Mar-68   HAMM JAMES E.   USAF

10-Oct-68   HANDRAHAN EUGENE A.   ARMY   Photo

01-Jan-68   HANLEY TERENCE H.   USN

05-APR-70   HANNOTEAUX GUY   CIV

11-Jun-67   HANRATTY THOMAS M.   USMC

13-Aug-69   HANSEN LESTER A.   ARMY

05-Sep-67   HANSON THOMAS P.   USAF

02-Jul-70   HARBER STEPHEN J.   ARMY

27-Jul-67   HARDIE CHARLES D.   USN

12-Oct-67   HARDY JOHN K.   USAF

15-May-75   HARGROVE JOSEPH N.   USMC   Mayaguez Incident loss

17-Oct-67   HARGROVE OLIN JR.   ARMY

18-May-66   HARLEY LEE D.   USAF

19-May-65   HARPER RICHARD K.   ARMY

12-Jun-66   HARRIS GREGORY J.   USMC

22-Oct-66   HARRIS HAROLD L.   ARMY

13-Mar-67   HARRIS PAUL WINIFORD   USMC

12-Apr-66   HARRIS REUBEN   USN

29-Oct-68   HARRISON DONALD L.   ARMY

25-Feb-67   HART JOSEPH L.   USAF

21-Dec-72   HART THOMAS T. III   USAF   Remains Returned 02/21/85 – Id Rescinded

28-Nov-72   HARVEY JACK R.   USAF

15-Jan-71   HARWOOD JAMES A.   ARMY

21-Apr-67   HASENBACH PAUL A.   ARMY

01-Aug-68   HASTINGS STEVEN M.   ARMY

05-FEB-68   HATTON WILTON N.   USAF   Not on Official DIA list

22-Mar-68   HATTORI MASAKI   ARMY

05-Sep-70   HAUER ROBERT D.   USAF

30-Jan-73   HAVILAND ROY ELBERT   USN

11-Jun-67   HAVRANEK MICHAEL W.   USMC

20-Sep-65   HAWKINS EDGAR LEE   USAF

12-Sep-67   HAWTHORNE RICHARD WILLIAM   USMC

24-Aug-68   HEEP WILLIAM ARTHUR   USN

06-Feb-67   HEISKELL LUCIUS L.   USAF

13-Mar-68   HEITMAN STEVEN W.   ARMY

24-Jan-66   HELBER LAWRENCE N.   USMC

17-Apr-68   HELD JOHN W.   USAF

12-Nov-69  HELMICH GERALD ROBERT   USAF   

11-Sep-69   HELWIG ROGER D.   USAF

21-Oct-67   HEMMEL CLARENCE J.   USAF   (Photo)

24-May-72   HENN JOHN R. JR.   ARMY

13-Mar-66   HENNINGER HOWARD W.   USAF

19-Sep-66   HENRY DAVID ALAN   USN

17-Mar-68   HENSLEY THOMAS TRUETT   USAF

04-Mar-71   HENTZ RICHARD J.   ARMY

03-NOV-70   HERBERT MICHAEL P.   RAAF   Australian Air Force – remains located 07/2009

06-May-70   HERNANDEZ FRANK S.   ARMY

02-Sep-72   HEROLD RICHARD W.   USAF

10-Oct-68   HERREID ROBERT D.   ARMY

25-Mar-69   HERRERA FREDERICK D.   ARMY

27-Oct-69   HERRICK JAMES W. JR   USAF

01-Jan-68   HERRIN HENRY H. JR.   USN

31-May-66   HERROLD NED R.   USAF

21-Mar-68   HESFORD PETER D.   USAF   (Photo)

29-Mar-69   HESS FREDERICK W.   USAF   (Photo)

17-Jun-66   HESS GENE K.   USAF

06-Jul-66   HESTLE ROOSEVELT L JR.   USAF

29-Apr-75   HEUBECK ELMER K.   CIV

29-Apr-75   HEUBECK NIBRIT H.   CIV

14-Jan-64   HICKMAN VINCENT JOSEPH   USAF

25-Mar-69   HICKS PRENTICE W.   ARMY

15-Aug-68   HICKS TERRIN D.   USAF

17-Nov-65   HIEMER JERRY A.   ARMY

09-Jun-70   HILBRICH BARRY W.   ARMY

29-Dec-65   HILL ARTHUR S. JR.   USN

21-Jan-68   HILL BILLY D.   ARMY

15-May-67   HILL CHARLES DALE   USN

30-Jun-70   HILL GORDON CLARK   USAF

27-Apr-70  HILL JOHN R.   ARMY

28-May-68   HILL JOSEPH A.  USMC

02-Oct-69   HILL RAYFORD J.   USN

06-Dec-63   HILL RICHARD D.   USAF

18-Oct-66  HILL ROBERT L.   USAF

14-Feb-66   HILLS JOHN R.   USAF

14-Mar-66   HILTON ROBERT L.   USAF

08-Nov-67   HINES VAUGHN M.   ARMY

26-Apr-72   HIRONS ALAN   CIV   Not on Official DIA list

25-Mar-67   HISE JAMES H.   USN

29-Jan-66   HODGSON CECIL J.   ARMY

28-Nov-66  HOEFFS JOHN H.  ARMY

07-Jan-70   HOFF MICHAEL G.   USN

21-Jan-67   HOGAN JERRY FRANKS   USN

03-Jan-71   HOLGUIN LUIS G.   ARMY

11-Mar-68   HOLLAND MELVIN A.   USAF   Not on Official DIA list – TDY CIV/LOCKHEED

20-Jan-68   HOLLEY TILDEN S.   USAF

14-Dec-71   HOLLINGER GREG N.   ARMY

16-Jan-66   HOLLINGSWORTH HAL T.   USN

14-Dec-66   HOLMAN GERALD A.   USN

15-Mar-66   HOLMES DAVID H.   USAF

30-Dec-71   HOLMES FREDERICK   USN

29-Jan-69   HOLTON ROBERT E.   USAF

24-Aug-67   HOLTZMAN RONALD L.   ARMY

17-Aug-67   HOM CHARLES DAVID   USN

23-May-67  HOMUTH RICHARD W.   USN

10-Feb-66   HOPPS GARY DOUGLAS   USN

09-Apr-70   HORCHAR ANDREW A.   USN

29-Apr-75   HORTON PAUL L.   CIV   Left Saigon

24-Mar-70   HOSKEN JOHN C.   ARMY   Group I.D. 06/2001

16-Feb-71   HOSKINS CHARLES L.   USAF   (Photo)

30-Mar-75   HOSKINS THOMAS B.   CIV   Left Saigon 10/75

29-Jul-66   HOSKINSON ROBERT E.   USAF

30-Jun-67   HOUSE JOHN A. II   USMC

19-Apr-68   HOUSH ANTHONY F.   ARMY

07-Jul-70   HOWARD LEWIS J.   ARMY

30-Jun-67   HOWARD LUTHER H.   ARMY

07-Mar-72   HOWELL CARTER A.   USAF

18-May-65   HRDLICKA DAVID L.   USAF   Photo Published by Communists 07/66

17-Mar-68   HUBBS DONALD R.   USN

13-May-70   HUBERTH ERIC J.   USAF

23-Feb-68   HUBLER GEORGE L.   USMC

26-Sep-67   HUDDLESTON LYNN R.   ARMY

10-Feb-71   HUET HENRI   Civ

04-Jun-70   HUGGINS BOBBY GENE   USAF

29-Apr-75   HUGHES JOSEPH   CIV   Left Saigon 08/75

29-Apr-75   HUGHES RICHARD   CIV   Left Saigon 08/75

27-Feb-67   HUIE LITCHFIELD P.   USN

29-Mar-65   HUME KENNETH E.   USN

06-Mar-71   HUMMEL JOHN F.   ARMY

01-Feb-66   HUMPHREY GALEN F.   USMC   (Photo)

04-Nov-70   HUMPHREY LARRY D.   ARMY   Escaped custody to join VC – USA Today 20 Feb 86

24-Apr-72   HUNSICKER JAMES E.   ARMY

05-Feb-70   HUNSUCKER JAMES   USN   Released 02/28/70

13-Oct-68   HUNT JAMES D.   ARMY

28-Feb-68   HUNT ROBERT W.   ARMY

04-Nov-66   HUNT WILLIAM B.   ARMY

29-Oct-68   HUNTER JAMES D.   USA

10-Feb-66   HUNTER RUSSELL P. JR.   USAF

29-Apr-75   HUNTLEY CHAD   CIV   Expelled from Saigon 06/75

27-Sep-69   HUNTLEY JOHN N.   ARMY

13-Jul-68   HURST JOHN CLARK   USMC

06-Feb-68   HUSS ROY A.   USN 

28-Mar-68   HUSTON CHARLES G.   ARMY

05-Dec-65   HYDE JIMMY DON   USN

02-Aug-67   HYNDS WALLACE G. JR.   USAF

19-Nov-67   IANDOLI DONALD   ARMY

05-Jun-67    IBANEZ DI REYES    USMC

09-Jan-68   IRSCH WAYNE C.   USAF

31-May-70   ISHI TOMOHARA   CIV   Not on Official DIA list

27-Jun-69   JABLONSKI MICHAEL J.   ARMY

27-Jun-65    JACKSON CARL E.    USAF

23-Mar-72   JACKSON JAMES T.   USAF

21-Sep-69   JACKSON JAMES W. JR.   USMC

24-Dec-72   JACKSON PAUL V. III   USAF   (Photo)

25-Aug-67   JACOBS EDWARD JAMES JR.   USN

21-Apr-68   JAMERSON LARRY C.   ARMY

18-Apr-73   JAMES SAMUEL L.   USAF   Charred bodies found at crash site (Photo) 
Remains Returned 02 Jan 99    ID Disputed

09-Aug-69   JANOUSEK RONALD J.   USMC

25-Jul-67   JARVIS JEREMY M.   USAF

12-Mar-71   JEFFS CLIVE G.   USAF

08-May-68   JENNE ROBERT E.   ARMY

18-Feb-69   JEROME STANLEY M.   USN

04-Sep-65   JEWELL EUGENE M.   USAF

11-May-68   JIMENEZ JUAN M.   ARMY   Ground Attack, Possibly KIA

28-Jun-68   JOHNS PAUL FREDERCK   USAF

03-Feb-67   JOHNSON AUGUST D.   USN   Reported blown up by grenade in boat

10-Jun-65   JOHNSON BRUCE G.   ARMY

27-Oct-66   JOHNSON DALE A.   USAF

21-Apr-68   JOHNSON FRANKIE B. JR.   ARMY

21-Aug-66   JOHNSON JAMES R.   ARMY

20-Feb-71   JOHNSON RANDOLPH L.   ARMY

29-Jul-67   JOHNSON RICHARD HERMAN   USMC

01-Sep-67   JOHNSON ROBERT D.   USN

03-Dec-65   JOHNSON STANLEY GARWOOD   USMC

19-Jan-68   JOHNSON WILLIAM D.   ARMY

04-Jan-73   JOHNSTON STEVEN B.   USAF

28-Nov-72   JONES BOBBY M.   USAF

23-Nov-69   JONES GRAYLAND   ARMY

03-Oct-66   JONES JAMES E.   ARMY

12-Nov-66   JONES JAMES GRADY   USN

24-Apr-72   JONES JOHNNY M.   ARMY

29-Nov-67   JONES LOUIS F.   USAF   Remains Returned 11/20/2000 ID’d 11/26/2001
Family has NOT accepted ID as of 10/2002

16-Apr-72   JONES ORVIN C. JR.   USAF

06-Feb-68   JONES THOMAS P.   USN

12-Apr-66   JORDAN LARRY M.   USN

01-Apr-67   JOURDENAIS GEORGE HENRY   USAF

30-Mar-75   JUDSON LORENZO D.   CIV   Left Saigon 05/76

08-May-68   JURECKO DANIEL E.   ARMY

Photo courtesy: www.telegraph.co.uk

POWs, MIAs, “We Will Never Forget” Part III, D-G


In continuation of my blog post of Friday, August, 8, 2015, I will continue to list the names of the servicemen still unaccounted for from the Vietnam and Korean conflicts. The gringa will kindly remind dear readers that clicking on incident date, name, branch of service or side note will take the reader directly to a page regarding that serviceman that is linked with the website www.pownetwork.org. So, in honor of those POWs and MIAs considered with the November 9, 2000, immigration policy known as the “Bring Them Home Alive Act”, the following men are not forgotten:

13-Dec-68  DAILEY DOUGLAS V.   USAF

09-Jun-65  DALE CHARLES A.       ARMY   Disappeared over Vinh Binh

27-Apr-67   DALLAS RICHARD H.   USMC

29-Apr-75   DANIEL LEON                CIV      Expelled from Saigon 08/75

05-Oct-70   DAVIDSON DAVID A.    ARMY

19-May-68   DAVIES JOSEPH E.      USAF

25-Jul-67     DAVIS DONALD V.       USN

17-Sep-68   DAVIS EDGAR F.           USAF

14-Jun-72   DAVIS FRANCIS J.         USN

13-Mar-66   DAVIS GENE E.             USAF

11-Mar-68   DAVIS JAMES WOODROW    USAF   Not on Official DIA list – TDY CIV/LOCKHEED

20-Mar-69   DAVIS RICARDO G.     ARMY

05-May-66   DAWES JOHN J.     ARMY

29-Apr-75   DAWSON ALAN   CIV   Expelled from Saigon 09/75

06-Nov-64   DAWSON DANIEL G.   ARMY

11-Apr-65   DAWSON DONALD   CIV   Released 08/21/65 – Captured searching for brother

16-Jul-69   DAWSON JAMES V.   USAF

03-Nov-70   DAY DENNIS I.   ARMY

02-Oct-69   DAYAO ROLANDO C.   USN

08-May-68   DAYTON JAMES L.   ARMY

18-Jun-71   DE BLASIO RAYMOND V.   USN

05-Sep-63   DE BRUIN EUGENE H.   CIV   

03-Nov-71   DE CAIRE JACK L.   ARMY

19-Nov-67   DE HERRERA BENJAMIN D.   ARMY

12-Apr-69   DE SOTO ERNEST L.   USAF

02-Oct-69   DEAN DONALD C.   USN

17-May-66   DEERE DONALD T.   ARMY

06-Sep-68   DEICHELMANN SAMUEL M.   USAF

07-Feb-69   DELEIDI RICHARD A.   USMC

14-Oct-77   DELLENBAUGH CORNELIA   CIV   Released from Saigon 01/12/78

18-May-67   DELONG JOE L.   ARMY

09-Jun-65   DEMMON DAVID S.   ARMY   Disappeared over Vinh Binh

17-Jun-66   DEMPSEY JACK I.   USN

23-Apr-70    EADS DENNIS K.   ARMY   

 22-Jun-70    EARLE JOHN S.    USN

 21-Oct-66    EARLL DAVID J.    USAF

28-Nov-72   EARNEST CHARLES M.   USN

21-Aug-67   EBY ROBERT G.   CIV

05-Nov-69   ECHANIS JOSEPH   USAF

03-Oct-66   ECHEVARRIA RAYMOND L.   ARMY

05-Feb-68   EDGAR ROBERT J.   USAF

29-Apr-75   EDIGER MAX   CIV   Left Saigon 05/76

31-May-66   EDMONDSON WILLIAM R.   USAF

21-Jan-66   EGAN JAMES T. JR.   USMC

19-Jan-67   EHRLICH DENNIS MICHAEL   USN

05-Dec-65   EISENBERGER GEORGE J.   ARMY

05-Jul-65   EISENBRAUN WILLIAM F.   ARMY   On PRG DIC List 08/07/65

24-Apr-72   ELLEN WADE L.   ARMY

02-Oct-69   ELLERD CARL J.   USN

09-Jun-70   ELLIOTT ANDREW J.   ARMY

21-Jan-68   ELLIOTT JERRY W.   ARMY

03-Jan-68   ELLIS BILLY J.   ARMY

18-Apr-69   ELLIS RANDALL S.   ARMY

24-Jun-66   ELLIS WILLIAM   ARMY

24-Mar-67   ELLISON JOHN C.   USN

02-May-68   ENGLANDER LAWRENCE J.   ARMY

18-May-71   ENTRICAN DANNY D.   ARMY

16-Mar-68   ERICKSON DAVID WAYNE   USMC

13-Nov-68   ERSKINE JACK D.   CIV   VC Sketches of Erskine found

01-Sep-69   ESCOBEDO JULIAN JR.   USMC

29-Apr-75   ESPER GEORGE   CIV   Expelled from Saigon 06/75

26-Apr-67   ESTOCIN MICHAEL J.   USN

26-Mar-68   EVANCHO RICHARD   USMC

05-Dec-68   EVANS BILLY K. JR.   ARMY

13-Mar-68   EVANS CLEVELAND JR.   USMC

02-Mar-69   EVANS WILLIAM A.   ARMY

26-Oct-71   EVELAND MICKEY E.   ARMY

10-Mar-67   EVERSON DAVID   USAF   Captured by Pathet Lao, help 29 days

29-Apr-75   FAIGAN LARRY   CIV   Left Saigon 12/75

04-Jul-69   FALLON PATRICK M.   USAF

31-Oct-67   FANNING HUGH M.    USMC   Remains Recovered 07/17/84    Id’d Rescinded

13-Dec-68   FANNING JOSEPH P.   USAF

16-May-71   FARLOW CRAIG L.   ARMY

06-Feb-68   FARRIS WILLIAM F.   USN

30-Dec-69   FEATHERSTON FIELDING W.   USAF

09-Apr-65   FEGAN RONALD J.   USN

20-Mar-68   FELLOWS ALLEN E.   USAF

11-May-66   FENELEY FRANCIS J.   USAF

21-Dec-72   FENTER CHARLES F.   USAF   Remains Returned 02/21/85 – Family refused Id

17-Jan-69   FICKLER EDWIN JAMES   USMC

30-Sep-68   FIESZEL CLIFFORD W.   USAF

29-Apr-75   FILLER FONG DUONG   CIV   Left Saigon 08/76

26-Oct-71   FINGER SANFORD I.   ARMY

21-Oct-68   FINLEY DICKIE W.   ARMY

24-Dec-71   FINN WILLIAM R.   USAF

09-Sep-66   FISCHER JOHN RICHARD   USMC

17-Oct-67   FITZGERALD PAUL L. JR.   ARMY

21-Jul-68   FLANAGAN SHERMAN E. JR.   USAF

10-May-68   FLEMING HORACE H. III   USMC

24-Nov-67   FOLEY BRENDAN P.   USAF

11-Jun-67   FOLEY JOHN J. III   USMC

19-Dec-71   FORAME PETER C.   ARMY

09-Dec-68   FORD EDWARD   ARMY

22-Jan-66   FORMAN WILLIAM S.   USN

27-Dec-72   FORRESTER RONALD W.   USMC

22-Dec-67   FORS GARY H.   USMC

29-Apr-75   FORSYTHE JULIA   CIV   Left Saigon 10/75

09-Mar-66   FOSTER ROBERT E.   USAF

01-Aug-68   FOWLER DONALD R.   ARMY

06-Jun-72   FOWLER JAMES A.   USAF

02-Oct-69   FOWLER JAMES J.   USN

02-Oct-69   FOWLER ROY G.   USN

24-Feb-65   FRAKES DWIGHT GLENN   USN

29-Apr-75   FRANJOLA MATT   CIV   Expelled Saigon 05/75

23-Mar-68   FRANKS IAN J.   ARMY 

02-Jul-69   FRANSEN ALBERT M JR.   USN

01-Mar-66   FRAWLEY WILLIAM D.   USN

03-Sep-68   FRAZIER PAUL R.   ARMY

17-Jun-66   FRENG STANLEY J.   USN

22-Jan-66   FRENYEA EDMUND M.   USN

12-Nov-66   FROSIO ROBERT CLARENCE   USN

02-Jan-70   FRYAR BRUCE C.   USN

07-Aug-66   FRYER CHARLES WIGGER   USN

26-Aug-67   FULLER WILLIAM OTIS   USAF

27-Jul-68   FULLERTON FRANK E.   USN

03-Jul-66   GAGE ROBERT H.    USMC

11-Dec-68   GALBRAITH RUSSELL D.   USAF

06-Feb-68   GALLAGHER DONALD L.   USN

13-Jul-65   GALLANT HENRY J.   ARMY 

08-Mar-67   GALVIN RONALD E.   USN

02-Oct-69   GAN LEONARDO M.   USN

24-Mar-70   GANOE BERMAN JR.   ARMY

09-Oct-69   GARBETT JIMMY R.   ARMY

19-Mar-71   GARCIA RICARDO M.   ARMY

29-May-67   GARNER JOHN H.   USN

22-Oct-71   GARRETT MAURICE E. JR.   ARMY

05-Oct-70   GASSMAN FRED A.   ARMY

07-Mar-70   GATES ALBERT H. JR.   USMC

06-Apr-66   GATES JAMES W.   ARMY

31-May-68   GATEWOOD CHARLES HUE   USMC

02-Apr-72   GATWOOD ROBIN F. JR.   USAF

01-May-67   GAUGHAN ROGER CONRAD   USMC

10-Jan-67   GAULEY JAMES P.   USAF

31-Oct-69   GAUTHIER DENNIS L.   ARMY

30-Apr-75   GAY ARLO N.   CIV   Known to have been captured in the Mekong delta in early 1975 – Left Saigon 09/76

16-Jan-68   GEE PAUL STUART   USMC

18-Jun-65   GEHRIG JAMES M. JR.   USAF

26-Sep-67   GEIST STEPHEN J.   ARMY

08-APR-70   GENSLUCKNER GEORG   CIV

08-Feb-68   GEORGE JAMES E.   ARMY

30-May-62   GERBER DANIEL A.   CIV   Taken from Leprosarium

08-Sep-72   GERSTEL DONALD A.   USN

01-May-68   GERVAIS DONALD P.   ARMY

27-Jun-68   GIAMMERINO VINCENT F.   ARMY

02-Apr-72   GIANNANGELI ANTHONY R.   USAF

13-Jun-66   GIERAK GEORGE G JR.   USN

07-Oct-66   GILCHRIST ROBERT M.   USAF   (Photo)

18-Feb-70   GILLEN THOMAS E.   USAF

03-Nov-70   GINN DAVID L.   ARMY

11-Mar-68   GISH HENRY G.   USAF   Not on Official DIA list – TDY CIV/LOCKHED

18-May-68   GIST TOMMY EMERSON   USAF   Egress reported Uyeyama saw ID card

26-May-66   GLANDON GARY A.   USAF

13-Jun-66   GLANVILLE JOHN T JR.   USN

12-Apr-66   GLASSON WILLIAM A.   USN

11-Jan-66   GODFREY JOHNNY HOWARD   USAF

05-Feb-68   GODWIN SOLOMON H.   USMC   Egress states died 02/24/68 (Photo)

17-Mar-67   GOEDEN GENE WILLIAM   USN

17-Sep-72   GOETSCH THOMAS AUGUST   USN

24-Aug-67   GOFF KENNETH B. JR.   ARMY

22-Apr-70   GOLZ JOHN B.   USN

23-Apr-70   GOMEZ ROBERT A.   USAF

21-Mar-70   GONZALES DAVID   USMC

19-Apr-68   GONZALEZ JESUS A.   ARMY

11-Jun-67   GONZALES JOSE J.   USMC

08-Sep-65   GOODWIN CHARLES B.   USN

02-Oct-69   GORE PAUL EDWIN   USN   Not on Official DIA list

02-Oct-69   GORSUCH WILLIAM D.   USN

06-Dec-63   GORTON THOMAS F.   USAF

23-Jul-68   GOSEN LAWRENCE D.   USN

05-FEB-68   GOTT RODNEY H.   USAF   Not on Official DIA list

21-Dec-72   GOULD FRANK A.   USAF

01-Apr-67   GOVAN ROBERT A.   USAF   Remains Id’d 06/14/2002 – ID RESCINDED BY USG 03/2003

14-Jun-69   GRACE JAMES W.   USAF

29-Aug-69   GRAF ALBERT STEPHEN   USMC

03-Oct-69   GRAFFE PAUL L.   ARMY

28-Mar-68   GRAHAM DENNIS L.   USAF

28-Sep-67   GRAHAM GILBERT J.   USN

16-Aug-68   GRANIELA JOSE A. JR.   ARMY

08-Mar-71   GRANTHAM ROBERT E.   ARMY

03-Nov-67   GRAUERT HANS H.   USN

25-May-67   GRAVES RICHARD C.   USN

17-Jun-66   GRAVITTE CONNIE M.   USAF

07-Aug-65   GRAY HAROLD EDWIN JR.   USN

01-Apr-66   GRAYSON WILLIAM R.   USN

16-Nov-65   GREEN DONALD GEORGE   USAF

10-Jul-72   GREEN FRANK C. JR.   USN

04-Dec-70   GREEN GEORGE C. JR.   ARMY

12-Sep-65   GREEN GERALD   USN

18-Jun-70   GREEN JAMES A.   ARMY

26-Mar-68   GREEN LARRY E.   USMC

09-Jan-68   GREEN NORMAN M.   USAF

25-Oct-66   GREEN ROBERT B.   USAF

26-Oct-71   GREEN THOMAS F.   ARMY

14-Apr-72   GREENLEAF JOSEPH G.   USN

07-Jan-66   GREENLEY JON ALFRED   USAF

02-Sep-72   GREENWOOD ROBERT R. JR.   USAF

29-Mar-75   GREGORY MARIE   CIV   Left Saigon with fake passport 08/75

25-Jul-70   GREGORY PAUL ANTHONY   USN

29-Mar-75   GREGORY PHILIPPE   CIV   Left Saigon with fake passport 08/75

24-Jul-68   GREILING DAVID S.   USN

12-May-67   GRENZEBACH EARL WILFRE JR.   USAF

26-May-66   GRIFFEY TERRANCE H.   USAF

12-Mar-68   GRIFFITH JOHN GARY   USN

28-Mar-68   GROSSE CHRISTOPHER A.   ARMY

12-Feb-68   GROTH WADE L.   ARMY

17-Sep-67   GRUBB PETER A.   USAF

01-May-67   GUAJARDO HILARIO H.   USMC

21-Aug-67   GUENTHER HARRY   CIV

18-May-66   GUILLET ANDRE R.   USAF

18-Jun-67   GUILLORY EDWARD J.   ARMY

25-Apr-68   GUILLORY HUBIA J.   ARMY   Reported KIA in ambush, remains left behind

29-Apr-75   GULDEN FREDERICK   CIV   Left Saigon 08/76

22-Jun-70   GUMBERT ROBERT W. JR.   ARMY

12-Feb-68   GUNN ALAN W.   ARMY

Photo courtesy: www.wilsoncenter.org

POWs, MIAs, “We Will Never Forget” Part II, B-C


In continuation of my blog post of Friday, August, 8, 2015, I will continue to list the names of the servicemen still unaccounted for from the Vietnam and Korean conflicts. The gringa will kindly remind dear readers that clicking on incident date, name, branch of service or side note will take the reader directly to a page regarding that serviceman that is linked with the website www.pownetwork.org. So, in honor of those POWs and MIAs considered with the November 9, 2000, immigration policy known as the “Bring Them Home Alive Act”, the following men are not forgotten:

Date               Name                                                 Branch

27-Feb-71     BABCOCK RONALD L.                   ARMY

31-Jan-68     BABCOCK, WILLIAM H. JR.          ARMY   Listed 2009 in PMSEA as Escaped captivity during the Vietnam War

28-Aug-66    BABULA ROBERT L.                       USMC

27-Aug-67    BACIK VLADIMIR HENRY             USMC

22-May-67    BACKUS KENNETH F.                     USAF

27-Mar-68    BADLEY JAMES LINDSAY             USAF

29-Jan-66      BADOLATI FRANK N.                    ARMY

01-Nov-69    BAILEY DANIEL T.                          ARMY

01-May-67   BAILEY JOHN HOWARD                 USMC

29-Apr-75    BAILEY MICHAEL                            CIV

25-Dec-65    BAILON RUBEN                                CIV

29-Apr-75    BAKER JACKY D.                              CIV        Left Saigon 08/76

15-May-66   BALCOM RALPH C.                        USAF

20-Nov-69   BALDRIDGE JOHN ROBERT JR.   USAF

13-Nov-70   BANCROFT WILLIAM W.               USAF

29-Apr-75   BANHAM MAURICE J.                      CIV        Left Saigon 08/76

23-Mar-61   BANKOWSKI ALFONS A.               USAF

12-Jul-69    BANNON PAUL W.                            USAF

18-Sep-65   BARBER ROBERT FRANKLIN       USN

17-Mar-68  BARBER THOMAS D.                      USN

31-Jan-67   BARDEN HOWARD L.                    USAF

27-Jul-67   BARE WILLIAM ORLAN                 USAF

07-Apr-66  BARNETT ROBERT RUSSELL       USAF

31-Aug-68   BARTOCCI JOHN E.                     USN

10-Aug-71  BATES PAUL J. JR.                       ARMY

21-Sep-66    BAUDER JAMES R.                      USN

17-Mar-71   BAUMAN RICHARD L.                 ARMY

08-Nov-67   BAXTER BRUCE R.                       ARMY

20-Mar-66   BEACH ARTHUR J.                       USMC

07-Jul-70     BEALS CHARLES E.                    ARMY

09-Aug-69   BECK EDWARD EUGENE JR.      USMC

02-Oct-69    BECK TERRY L.                           USN

15-Aug-70   BECKER JAMES C.                      ARMY

24-Mar-71   BECKWITH HARRY M.               ARMY

11-Jun-67    BEECHER QUENTIN R.                ARMY

05-Oct-66    BEENE JAMES A.                         USN

05-Dec-66    BEGLEY BURRISS NELSON       USAF

28-Mar-69   BELCHER ROBERT A.                 USAF

23-Jun-66    BELKNAP HARRY JOHN            USN

02-Oct-69    BELL RICHARD W.                      USN

08-APR-70   BELLENDORF DIETER                CIV

9-Jul-67       BENNEFELD STEVEN H.            USMC

13-Dec-67   BENNETT ROBERT E. III             USAF

29-Apr-75   BENNETT SHERMAN H.              CIV        Left Saigon 08/76

22-Dec-72    BENNETT THOMAS W. JR.       USAF

02-Sep-67    BENNETT WILLIAM G.              USAF

17-Mar-68   BENSON LEE D.                          USN

23-May-69   BENTON GREGORY R.              USMC

27-Apr-67    BENTON JAMES AUSTIN          USMC

20-Jan-72     BERDAHL DAVID D.                 ARMY

31-May-68   BERESIK EUGENE PAUL          USAF

07-Aug-71    BERG BRUCE A.                        ARMY

23-Aug-68    BERGEVIN CHARLES L.          USAF

29-Apr-75    BERARD ARAM J.                     CIV        Left Saigon 08/75

05-Dec-68    BERRY JOHN A.                       ARMY

11-Aug-67    BERUBE KENNETH ALLEN     USMC

13-May-69   BESSOR BRUCE C.                   ARMY

26-Nov-71    BEUTEL ROBERT D.                USAF

29-Oct-68     BEZOLD STEVEN                     ARMY

22-Apr-61     BIBER GERALD MACK            ARMY

18-Jun-71     BIDWELL BARRY A.                USN

06-May-69   BILLIPP NORMAN K.                USMC

15-Nov-68    BIRCHIM JAMES D.                 ARMY

15-Jul-68      BIRD LEONARD ADRIAN        USMC

22-Apr-61     BISCHOFF JOHN MALCOM    ARMY

29-Apr-70     BISHOP EDWARD J. JR.         ARMY

07-Jul-67      BITTENBENDER DAVID F.      USAF

24-Oct-72     BIXEL MICHAEL SARGENT    USN

14-Jul-62      BLEWETT ALAN L.                  CIV

19-Apr-68     BLODGETT DOUGLAS R.       ARMY

13-Nov-64    BLOOM DARL R.                     USMC

20-Sep-66     BLOOM RICHARD MCAULIFFE   USMC

12-Nov-69    BODAHL JON KEITH                     USAF

28-Aug-66    BODENSCHATZ JOHN E.              USMC

12-May-72   BOGARD LONNIE P.                       USAF

27-Aug-67    BOGGS PASCHAL GLENN            USMC

02-Mar-69    BOGIAGES CHRISTO C. JR.          USAF

19-Aug-69    BOHLIG JAMES RICHARD            USMC

11-Jun-67     BOHLSCHEID CURTIS R.              USMC

25-Aug-67     BoisClaire RONALD A                  USN        Name is French/USG shows Clair as 1st name

18-Jan-68     BOLES WARREN W.                      USN

02-Apr-72     BOLTE WAYNE L.                          USAF

06-Oct-72     BOLTZE BRUCE E.                        USMC

11-Mar-68    BOND RONALD DALE                    USAF

30-Sep-71     BOND RONALD L.                         USAF     (Photo)

04-Jul-70      BOOKOUT CHARLES F.                ARMY

23-Dec-70     BOOTH GARY P.                            USN

23-Jun-68     BOOTH JAMES E.                          USAF

16-Oct-69     BOOTH LAWRENCE R.                  ARMY

24-Jan-66     BOOZE DELMAR G.                       USMC

29-Apr-75     BORDEN HOWARD A.                    CIV

13-Oct-66     BORDEN MURRAY L.                     USAF

21-Feb-67     BORJA DOMINGO R.                     ARMY

28-Apr-68     BORS JOSEPH C.                           USAF

28-Aug-66    BORTON ROBERT C. JR.              USMC    DoD Remains Returned list 12/96 – Family rejects ID

29-Jul-66      BOSSIO GALILEO F.                     USAF

25-Sep-66     BOSSMAN PETER R.                    USN

02-Dec-66     BOTT RUSSELL P.                       ARMY

20-Dec-68     BOUCHARD MICHAEL L.             USN

03-Aug-65    BOWER JOSEPH E.                      USAF

24-Mar-69    BOWERS RICHARD L.                  ARMY

03-Nov-65    BOWLES DWIGHT POLLARD      USAF

16-Jun-68     BOWMAN FRANK                        USN

02-Oct-69     BOWMAN MICHAEL L.                USN

14-Dec-71     BOYANOWSKI JOHN G.             ARMY

28-Mar-68    BOYER ALAN LEE                       ARMY

28-Feb-70     BOYLE WILLIAM                        ARMY

09-Feb-73     BOYLES HOWARD                     CIV        Remains Recovered 04/73 – ID Refuted by family

12-Feb-70     BRADSHAW ROBERT S. III        USMC

08-Jul-65      BRAM RICHARD C.                     USMC

08-May-69   BRASHEAR WILLIAM J.              USAF

28-Sep-66     BRASHER JIMMY M.                  ARMY

06-Apr-70    BRASSFIELD ANDREW T.           ARMY

26-Jul-67      BRAZIK RICHARD                      USAF

12-Feb-70     BREEDING MICHAEL HUGH     USMC

24-Sep-68     BREINER STEPHEN E.              USMC

25-Feb-68     BRELLENTHIN MICHAEL         USMC    Not on Official DIA List

14-Dec-71     BREMMER DWIGHT A.             ARMY

26-Nov-67    BRENNAN HERBERT O.            USAF

26-Jul-69      BRENNING RICHARD D.           USN

20-Nov-72    BREUER DONALD C.                USMC    (Photo)

04-Jun-68     BRICE ERIC PARKER               USN

29-Apr-75     BRICKMAN JOSEPH                 CIV        Left Saigon 04/76

30-Jun-71     BRIDGES PHILIP W.                 ARMY

14-Dec-66     BRIGHAM ALBERT                  USMC

13-May-69   BROOKS JOHN H.                     ARMY

09-Nov-67    BROWER RALPH W.                 USAF

 30-Jul-70   BROWN DONALD A.                  USAF

19-Sep-66     BROWN FRANK MONROE JR.   USN

12-Feb-68     BROWN HARRY W.                  ARMY

12-Aug-70    BROWN JAMES A.                   ARMY

05-Apr-66     BROWN JAMES WILLIAM       USMC

29-Apr-66     BROWN THOMAS E.                USN

17-Jul-72      BROWN WAYNE G. II               USAF

24-Dec-68     BROWNLEE CHARLES R.       USAF

25-Apr-72     BROWNLEE ROBERT W.         ARMY

29-Apr-66     BRUCH DONALD W. JR.          USAF

18-Feb-69     BRUCHER JOHN M.                 USAF     (Photo)

21-May-66   BUCKLEY LOUIS                       ARMY

16-Dec-69     BUCKLEY VICTOR P.               USN

21-Aug-67    BUDD LEONARD R. JR.           USMC    Released by DRV 03/05/73

17-Sep-72     BUELL KENNETH R.                USN

11-Apr-71     BUERK WILLIAM CARL           USAF

25-Aug-66    BULLARD WILLIAM H.            USN

31-Jan-67     BULLOCK LARRY A.               ARMY

06-Sep-66     BUNDY NORMAN L.                USN

30-Dec-70     BUNKER PARK G.                   USAF     (Photo)

01-Aug-69    BURD DOUGLAS G.                USAF

13-Jun-66     BURKART CHARLES W.        USAF

19-Oct-66     BURKE MICHAEL J.               USMC

05-FEB-69   BURKE WALTER F.                 USAF     Not on Official DIA list

05-Jan-70     BURNES ROBERT WAYNE    USMC

06-Feb-68     BURNETT DONALD F.           USN

02-Feb-68     BURNHAM DONALD D.         ARMY

25-Dec-67     BURNS FREDERICK J.          USMC    On PRG DIC list 01/02/69 – Remains Returned 1994 Id’d 04/95

04-Oct-66     BURNS JOHN D.                    USN        Released by DRV 03/04/73

31-Jul-69      BURNS MICHAEL P.              ARMY

22-Dec-69     BURRIS DONALD D. JR.       ARMY

02-Feb-71     BURROWS LARRY                CIV

24-Jul-68      BUSH JOHN R.                      USAF     (Photo)

09-Jun-66     BUSH ROBERT IRA              USAF

09-Apr-70     BUSHNELL BRIAN L.            USN

14-Jul-69      BUTLER DEWEY R.               ARMY

26-Oct-69     BYNUM NEIL S.                     USAF

09-Jan-69     BYRD HUGH M. JR.              ARMY

13-Mar-68    BYRNE JOSEPH HENRY       USAF

02-Oct-68     BYTHEWAY FRANK L.         CIV

 17-Oct-67    CADWELL ANTHONY B.      ARMY

21-Dec-72     CAFFARELLI CHARLES J.   USAF

17-Jun-66     CAIRNS ROBERT A.               USAF

14-Dec-71     CALDWELL FLOYD D.         ARMY

11-Mar-68    CALFEE HAMES HENRY     USAF     Not on Official DIA List – TDY Civ/Lockheed

27-Mar-68    CALHOUN JOHNNY C.        ARMY

23-Sep-68     CALLAHAN DAVID F. JR.   USN

07-Jan-66     CALLANAN RICHARD JOSEPH   USAF

01-Aug-69    CALLIES TOMMY L.                      USAF     (Photo)

11-Mar-68    CALLOWAY PORTER E.                ARMY

29-Jul-66      CAMERON VIRGIL KING               USN

29-Jan-69     CAMPBELL WILLIAM E.               USAF

29-Apr-75     CANTON SUZAN                           CIV        Left Saigon 08/76

14-Jan-67     CANUP FRANKLIN H. JR.            USN

07-Dec-66     CARLSON JOHN WERNER          USAF

13-Feb-67     CARLSON PAUL V.                      USN

17-Apr-67     CARLTON JAMES E.                    USMC

05-APR-70   CARON GILLES                             CIV

06-Mar-67    CARPENTER HOWARD B.            ARMY

06-Jul-71      CARR DONALD G.                       ARMY

02-Nov-69    CARROLL PATRICK H.                USAF

28-Aug-66    CARTER DENNIS R.                     USMC

24-Apr-72     CARTER GEORGE W.                  ARMY

26-Jan-71     CARTER GERALD LYNN             USN

10-Nov-66     CARTER WILLIAM T.                  USN

31-Jan-71     CARTWRIGHT PATRICK G.        USN

10-Apr-68      CARVER HARRY F.                    ARMY

23-Jun-68     CASEY DONALD F.                    USAF

15-Jul-67      CASSELL ROBIN B.                   USN

27-Apr-67     CASTRO REINALDO ANTONIO USMC

25-Feb-66     CAUSEY JOHN BERNAND        USAF

28-Jun-66     CAVALLI ANTHONY FRANK    USAF

04-Nov-69    CAVENDER JAMES R.               ARMY   Remains of other crew recovered

12-Nov-67    CAYCE JOHN D.                        USN

21-Sep-69     CECIL ALAN B.                         ARMY

20-Apr-68     CESTARE JOSEPH ANGELO    USMC

24-Apr-71     CHAMPION JAMES A.               ARMY

25-Sep-72     CHAN PETER                                USN        Fell Overboard/Oriskany

06-Feb-68     CHAPA ARMANDO JR.            USN

18-Feb-69     CHAPMAN RODNEY M.           USN

21-Mar-67    CHARVET PAUL CLAUDE        USN

30-Jul-70      CHAVEZ GARY A.                    USAF

28-May-71   CHAVIRA STEPHEN                  ARMY

27-Dec-72     CHIPMAN RALPH J.                USMC

11-Jun-67     CHOMEL CHARLES D.            USMC

22-Apr-68     CHOMYK WILLIAM                  USAF

03-Apr-72     CHRISTENSEN ALLEN D.        ARMY

13-Apr-72     CHRISTENSEN JOHN MICHAE   USMC

01-Mar-66    CHRISTENSEN WILLIAM M.        USN

02-Jun-65     CHRISTIAN DAVID M.                 USN        Remains Returned 04/10/86 – Id Questioned

18-Mar-75     CHRISTIAN GEORGE A.             CIV        Left Saigon 08/75

11-Jun-67     CHRISTIE DENNIS R.                  USMC

21-Jan-73     CHRISTOPHERSEN KEITH A.     USN

29-Apr-75     CHUNG YEN BINH                       CIV        Left Saigon 08/76

03-May-70   CHURCHILL CARL R.                  USAF

30-Mar-68    CICHON WALTER A.                   ARMY

01-Jan-69     CLACK CECIL J.                        ARMY

26-Jul-67      CLAFLIN RICHARD AMES        USAF

21-Apr-78     CLARK JAMES W.                     CIV        Phnom Phenh Jail until 11/78

15-Dec-65     CLARK JERRY P.                      ARMY

18-Oct-66     CLARK LAWRENCE                  USAF

24-Oct-67     CLARK RICHARD C.                 USN

14-Feb-69     CLARK STANLEY S.                USAF

03-May-68    CLARK STEPHEN W.               USMC

13-Dec-68     CLARKE FRED L.                    USAF

16-Oct-67     CLARKE GEORGE W.              USAF     (Photo)

09-Nov-67    CLAY EUGENE L.                     USAF

03-May-68   CLEM THOMAS D.                    USMC

22-Mar-71    CLEVE REGINALD D.               ARMY

05-FEB-68   CLEVER LOUIS J.                     USAF     Not on Official DIA list

18-Sep-69     CLINE CURTIS R.                    ARMY

11-Jun-67     CLINTON DEAN E.                  ARMY

15-Mar-65    CLYDESDALE CHARLES F.    USN

18-Jan-69     COADY ROBERT F.                USAF

21-Jan-68     COALSTON ECHOL W. JR.    ARMY

01-Feb-66     COATES DONALD L.              USMC

17-Jun-66     COBBS RALPH B.                   USN

31-Jan-68     COCHEO RICHARD N.            CIV        Taken from house in Yinh Long

23-May-68   COCHRAN ISOM CARTER JR.    ARMY

17-Jun-70     COCHRANE DEVERTON C.       ARMY

24-Nov-63    CODY HOWARD RUDOLPH       USAF     Crew remains recovered, no sign subj

12-May-68   COEN HARRY B.                         ARMY

12-Jan-68     COHRON JAMES D.                  ARMY

06-Mar-69    COLEMAN JIMMY L.                  ARMY

17-Jun-66     COLLETTE CURTIS D.              USN

04-Dec-67     COLLINS ARNOLD                    USMC

13-Mar-68    COLLINS GUY FLETCHER         USAF

22-Nov-69    COLLINS RICHARD F.               USN

19-Aug-68    COLLINS THEOTHIS                 USMC

09-Mar-66    COLLINS WILLARD M.              USAF

31-May-70   COLNE ROGER                          CIV        Not on Official DIA list

06-Mar-68    COLOMBO GARY LEWIS          USMC

10-Jun-65     COMPA JOSEPH J. JR.            ARMY   Last seen on ground

21-Mar-66     COMPTON FRANK R.               USN

03-May-70   CONAWAY LAWRENCE Y.        USAF

08-May-68   CONDREY GEORGE T. III          ARMY

10-Oct-66     CONFER MICHAEL STEELE    USN

27-Jan-69     CONGER JOHN E.                    ARMY

16-May-70   CONNER EDWIN RAY                USN

28-Oct-68     CONNOR CHARLES R.             USMC

07-May-72   CONSOLVO JOHN W.                USMC    (Photo)

12-Apr-66     CONWAY JAMES B.                  ARMY

06-Apr-66     COOK DENNIS P.                      USN

31-Dec-64     COOK DONALD G.                   USMC    On PRG DIC list 12/01/67

21-Oct-69     COOK GLENN R.                      USAF

10-Nov-67    COOK KELLY F.                       USAF

28-Apr-68     COOK WILLIAM R.                   USAF

22-Apr-68     COOLEY DAVID L.                   USN

16-Jan-68     COOLEY ORVILLE D.              USN

28-Feb-68     COONS HENRY A.                   USN

04-Feb-72     COOPER DANIEL D.                USN

29-Apr-75     COOPER WILLIAM G.              CIV        Left Saigon 08/76

16-Nov-68    COPLEY WILLIAM M.               ARMY

27-Jul-67      CORBITT GILLAND W.            USAF

27-Jan-68     CORDOVA ROBERT J.            USN        (Photo)

01-May-67   COREFIELD STAN L.                USMC

08-Dec-65     CORLE JOHN T.                      USMC

16-Jun-73     CORNELIUS SAMUEL B.        USAF

05-NOV-68   CORNTHWAITE THOMAS G.   CIV

08-Nov-70    CORONA JOEL                       ARMY

14-May-68   COTA ERNEST K.                    USN

09-Mar-70    COTTEN LARRY W.                USAF

29-Apr-75     COWAN KENNETH                 CIV

08-Mar-67    CRAIN CARROLL O.               USN

05-Jan-71     CRAMER DONALD M.            ARMY

12-May-68   CRAVEN ANDREW J.              ARMY

21-Apr-68     CREAMER JAMES E.             ARMY

13-Mar-71    CREED BARTON S.                USN        (Photo)

10-Nov-67    CREW JAMES A.                    USAF     (Photo)

22-May-68   CREWS JOHN H. III                 USAF

19-Mar-71    CRISTMAN FREDERICK L.     ARMY

22-Aug-72    CROCKETT WILLIAM J.        USAF

16-May-71   CROOK ELLIOTT                    ARMY

05-Apr-70    CROPPER CURTIS H.             USN

30-Mar-72    CROSBY BRUCE A. JR.         ARMY

01-Jun-65     CROSBY FREDERICK P.      USN

17-Jul-68      CROSS ARIEL L.                  USMC

24-Apr-70     CROSS JAMES E.                 USAF

25-Apr-68     CROSSMAN GREGORY J.   USAF

16-May-68   CROSSON GERALD J.          USAF

27-Mar-72    CROW RAYMOND J. JR.      USAF

19-Nov-67    CROXDALE JACK L. II         ARMY

07-Jul-67      CRUMM WILLIAM J.            USAF

18-May-69   CUDLIKE CHARLES J.          ARMY

02-Aug-67    CUNNINGHAM CAREY A.    USAF

03-Oct-69     CUNNINGHAM KENNETH    ARMY

10-Jun-65     CURLEE ROBERT L. JR.     ARMY

08-Jan-71     CURRY KEITH R.                  USN

25-Sep-66     CUSHMAN CLIFTON E.       USAF

27-Mar-69    CZERWIEC RAYMOND G.    ARMY

Photo courtesy: www.postalmuseum.si.edu

POWs, MIAs, “We Will Never Forget”


November 9, 2000, the United States Congress enacted a new immigration policy known as the “Bring Them Home Alive Act”. This legislation was aimed at individuals who were  Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, North Korea and Chinese nationals, as well as anyone from a former independent Soviet state. The bill granted asylum and refugee status for any of these people who returned to the United States any U.S. prisoner of war or serviceman who was missing in action. Refugee and asylum status would also be given to their spouse and any children.

This bill also authorized an international radio and television broadcast designed to inform people in foreign countries of this program. Worldwide coverage would transmit the message to Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, China, North Korea and Russia. This program would receive twenty hours of airtime over a thirty day period. A website was designed with international access with information readily available.

Representative Sheila Jackson-Lee was so moved by the sentiment of this bill, she said this when she placed her “yea” vote: “This bill creates an extraordinary opportunity for nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, China and the independent states of the former Soviet Union to do a wonderful thing and be richly rewarded for it… I am deeply moved when I think of the grief that is being endured by so many Americans, the Americans who are living with the uncertainty of having family members who were missing in action or prisoners… I feel very strongly that the bill is worthwhile even if it only brings one solder home to his family after all of these years.”

Although there is still debate over just how many are still unaccounted for, as far as the gringa’s concerned, a human being is a human being, not a number. The gringa stands with Representative Sheila Jackson-Lee, if even one, single, solitary soldier is still unaccounted for, he matters. Whether alive or dead, he belongs in his homeland.

The folks at the POW Network, www.pownetwork.org, will never forget. They maintain a database regarding all American POW’s and MIA’s during the Vietnam and Korean War eras. The ones who returned alive or whose remains were returned to the United States are updated. Disputed identity claims are noted. But still, considering the ones who have returned or been identified, the list of the ones who remain lost to us is daunting.

As late as January, 2015, remains were still being identified. Some claims of servicemen who are considered killed in action are disputed because their remains were never actually found. The determination was found because the remains of the rest of the crew were discovered and identified. There are also those that were lost at sea. Some POWs and MIAs are even civilians. Some POWs that are considered deceased have only been identified by photographs which has also caused some disagreement over whether family members actually believe it to be their loved one.

As the gringa explored the website, clicked on random names and discovered the information connected with that name, these names came alive for me. I cannot write about “never forgetting” and yet not mention their names. The names are too numerous to list in one blog post. Even by selecting only the ones who are still unaccounted for, the gringa is still left with an enormous task too big for one post. I don’t know at this time how many posts it will take, but consecutive posts will continue the list of names until I reach the very last name on the list. To the gringa, this seems the only respectful thing to do.

As the dear reader explores the list, if you click on an item, whether name, date, military branch or side notes, it is a link that will take you directly to a data page for that particular POW. The gringa thanks you in advance for your patience as I continue to list these names for the next week or so, maybe longer, however long it takes.

Incident          Name                                             Branch        Notes

07-Mar-73     ACKLEY JAMES W.                          CIV

22-Aug-68     ACOSTA-ROSARIO HUMBERTO   ARMY

08-Nov-67     ADAMS JOHN R.                               ARMY

17-Jun-66      ADAMS OLEY N.                              USAF

31-Oct-65      ADAMS SAMUEL                             USAF    On PRG Died in Capitivy 

18-Oct-66      ADAMS STEVEN H.                         USAF

02-Feb-68     ADKINS CHARLES L.                      ARMY

12-Mar-67    ADRIAN JOSEPH D.                         USAF

01-Nov-69    ADVENTIO RUDOLPHO A.              USN

12-May-67   AGOSTO SANTOS JOSE                 USMC

31-May-66   ALBERTSON BOBBY J.                  USAF

13-Dec-68    ALBRIGHT JOHN S. II                    USAF    (Photo)

29-Jun-70     ALDERN DONALD D.                    USN

04-Nov-69   ALFORD TERRY L.                        ARMY   Remains of crew recovered

11-Dec-66   ALFRED GERALD O. JR.               USAF     (Photo)

04-Mar-71   ALGAARD HAROLD L.                  ARMY

24-Aug-67   ALLARD RICHARD M.                   ARMY

26-Mar-70   ALLEN HENRY L.                           USAF

26-Mar-68   ALLGOOD FRANKIE E.                  USMC

12-Aug-66   ALLINSON DAVID J.                      USAF

07-Jun-70   ALLOWAY CLYDE DOUGLAS       USAF

01-Feb-66   ALM RICHARD A.                           USMC

12-Jul-67    ALMENDARIZ SAMUEL                ARMY

08-Oct-69   ALTIZER ALBERT H.                      ARMY

23-Nov-71   ALTUS ROBERT W.                       USAF

27-Feb-67    ALWAN HAROLD J.                      USMC

28-Jan-70    ANDERSON GREGORY L.             USAF

06-Oct-62   ANDERSON THOMAS EDWARD    USMC

26-Apr-66  ANDERSON WARREN L.                 USAF

04-Mar-66  ANDREWS STUART M                    USAF   Buried without remains in 1978. Military ID found 2006.

12-Dec-63 ANGELL MARSHALL J.                   ARMY

18-Oct-66  ANGSTADT RALPH HAROLD         USAF

11-Sep-67  ANSPACH ROBERT A.                    ARMY

24-Jul-71   ANTUNANO GREGORY A.               ARMY

08-Jun-67  APODACA VICTOR J.                      USAF  (Photo) I.D. DISPUTED 06/2001

16-Oct-67   APPELHANS RICHARD D.               USAF

17-Mar-69   ARMISTEAD STEVEN R.                  USMC

18-Jun-65   ARMOND ROBERT L.                      USAF

06-Oct-67   ARMSTRONG FRANK A. III            USAF

09-Nov-67   ARMSTRONG JOHN W.                   USAF

18-Nov-66   ARNOLD WILLIAM T.                       USN

06-APR-70   ARPIN CLAUDE                                CIV     Not on Official DIA Lists

29-Aug-68    ASHALL ALAN F.                            USN

19-Jan-67     ASHBY DONALD R. SR.                  USN

12-May-67    ASHLOCK CARLOS                         USMC

05-Feb-66    ASMUSSEN GLENN EDWARD         USN

18-Jul-71     ASTON JAY S.                                   ARMY

02-Dec-65    AUSTIN CARL BENJAMIN                USN

26-Apr-67    AUSTIN CHARLES D.                        USAF

21-Apr-66    AUSTIN ELLIS E.                               USN

19-Mar-67    AUSTIN JOSEPH C.                          USAF

29-Jul-68     AUXIER JERRY E.                             ARMY

03-May-68   AVERY ROBERT DOUGLAS           USMC

07-Jul-67     AVOLESE PAUL A.                           USAF

18-Jul-65     AVORE MALCOLM A.                      USN

19-Mar-70    AYERS DARRELL EUGENE           USMC

16-Apr-70    AYERS RICHARD L.                         USAF

Photo credit:  http://blog.daum.net/

2000 Hmong Veterans’ Naturalization Act


The 2000 Hmong Veterans’ Naturalization Act was passed in order to expedite the naturalization process of persons who were part of guerilla forces or irregular units in Laos during February 28, 1961 and September 18, 1978. Specifically, the naturalization requirement to speak English was waived, along with some other requirements. Spouses were also included in this legislation. The war veteran and family would be granted refugee status. Even if the war veteran had passed away, his family was still eligible for refugee status and expedited naturalization as long as they applied with the time window prescribed. Numbers accepted were limited to 45,000 Hmong Laotians.

Although most Americans are familiar with the Vietnam War, they may be less familiar with what Laos had to do with it. From 1953 until 1975 Laos was embroiled in a civil war between the Pathet Lao and Royal Lao who controlled the government. This was during the time of the Cold War between Russia and the United States. This conflict, like many others around the globe during the Cold Wars, was actually a proxy war between the U.S. and Russia. The Pathet Lao were backed by Russia and the United States threw in with the Royal Lao. For the people in the know during that era this conflict was called the “Secret War” as both sides fought viciously for control over the Laotian Panhandle.

This was a dense jungle region. Ethnic groups in the area felt threatened by the Pathet rebels. They simply wanted to be left alone within their own territory. The tribal territory of the Hmong was a little piece of real estate that was strategic because, if controlled, the U.S. could cut off supply routes to the North Vietnamese. That is why the U.S. decided to support the Hmong with money and war materials.

The legislation describes the Hmong as mountain people from the southern part of China and northern Burma, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam. The bill describes their assistance to U.S. forces during the Vietnam War. When this war ended, the opposing force of Pathet Lao had gained control and many Hmong who had allied themselves with the U.S. were imprisoned and suffered persecution. It is estimated that up to 150,000 Hmong immigrated to the U.S. as refugees as a result of the Vietnam War’s outcome.

The United States recognized that the Hmong’s choice to support the Americans was at great personal risk of danger and possible loss of life. They participated in critical and dangerous missions. They were an important source of military intelligence that was used in combat operations as well as rescue operations for downed pilots.

Once the refugees arrived in the U.S. they found the naturalization process difficult because of the difficulty of learning the English language. The Hmong society did not have a written language until recently so many of the guerillas had never attended a school in the sense of what American society considers education. Because of this difficulty, the nation decided to ease the language requirement in order for these families to become U.S. citizens.

When President Clinton signed this bill into law, this is what he had to say, “This legislation is a tribute to the service, courage, and sacrifice of the Hmong people who were our allies in Laos during the Vietnam War. After the Vietnam War, many Hmong soldiers and their families came to the United States and have become part of the social fabric of American society. They work, pay taxes, and have raised families and made America their home… This law is a small step but an important one in honoring the immense sacrifices that the Hmong people made in supporting our efforts in Southeast Asia.”  It  may have taken America twenty years, but, the gringa is proud to say that finally, the country made things right.

Sources:

https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol47no1/article01.html

http://library.uwb.edu/guides/usimmigration/2000_hmong_veterans_naturalization_act.html

https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/106/hr371

https://www.socialsecurity.gov/legislation/legis_bulletin_061300.html

http://www.oac.cdlib.org/view?docId=hb5x0nb468;NAAN=13030&doc.view=frames&chunk.id=ss1.01&toc.depth=1&toc.id=&brand=oac4

http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CRPT-106hrpt563/html/CRPT-106hrpt563.htm

http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=58559

http://www.ilw.com/immigrationdaily/news/2000,0927-Hmong.shtm

http://www.aila.org/infonet/dhs-hmong-veterans-naturalization-act-2000

Photo credit:  2001-2009.state.gov