Mysteries Are A Scientist’s BFF


When the gringa was a young adult there was big news for a small town in Texas not far from where I lived. Waxahachie was going to be getting a superconducting supercollider. At the time, I didn’t have a clue what that meant but it sure sounded intriguing. Eventually the facility was abandoned but not the gringa’s interest. Twenty-six years later the gringa must confess most of the science involved in using supercolliders still escapes me. But, when a headline features that word, I am eager to read and try my best to understand just what the heck is going on.

Now, one would think that since the Waxahachie facility shut down that must mean that it failed in its mission. The gringa says, “Not so fast.” Before it closed, scientists had created what is now being called the Madala hypothesis. Waxahachie scientists who had discovered the Higgs boson (a subatomic particle like a photon that has zero spin) that interacted with physical matter proposed that there was a particular boson that would interact with dark matter.

Working off that theory, researchers at Johannesburg’s University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa may have just proved that theory to be correct. The South African scientists propose that more than one quarter of the universe is made up of dark matter. The physical aspect of the Universe, what we can see with our eyes, touch with our hands or detect with infrared technology is only about 5% of the Universe.

One of the South African researchers explains why physicists are so inspired to hunt down this elusive dark matter related boson. They believe that it is the key to explain phenomena that has baffled the science community as well as the public at large for as long as man has studied the stars. The so-called “God” particle. Working from the progress of Waxahachie supercollider research, the South African team collaborated with researchers from Sweden and India. The result of their work was the Madala theory Now the hunt begins for that particular subatomic particle that moves and affects and exposes the existence of dark matter.

A funny semantic twist the gringa discovered while researching this story is Mandala theory that could very well be applied to the efforts of science to prove Madala theory. Traditional Mandala theory is that the enemy of your enemy is your friend. With that perspective in mind then, inexplicable peculiarities are no longer an enemy to a disciplined scientific mind. When physicists observe something that can’t be explained or defies the laws of physics as we know them, rather than the phenomena be seen as exposing their ignorance, it may validate the existence of dark matter. The anomaly may be caused by certain subatomic particles that have yet to be identified interacting with the space of dark matter. So, in other words, mysteries are a friend to science.

Sources:

www.amusingplanet.com

www.ibtimes.co.uk

Image Credit:  www.nasa.gov

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Salute Our Space Heroes


Traveling in outer space sounds fun. Being an astronaut seems to be an exciting career. Until the gringa is reminded about space radiation. Those heavy duty marshmallow looking suits astronauts wear are not just to keep them warm, properly pressurized and surrounded by oxygen. They also protect against dangerous space radiation. But is it enough? Are spacecrafts and the International Space Station adequately protected or are our astronauts slowly being radiated to death?

Radiation is an invisible energy form of high-speed particles and electromagnetics. It surrounds humans in everyday artificial light, sunlight, and electronics that produce radio-, television-, and micro- waves. Radiation comes in two forms:

  • Ionized: This is the worst in the form of gamma rays, protons and neutrons. Exposure to ionized radiation results in exposed atoms becoming unstable by an energy powerful enough to remove electrons from their orbit around the atom’s nucleus.
  • Non-ionized: Not powerful enough to destabilize atoms, this is the kind of common radiation produced by microwaves, radio waves and light.

The radiation in space is, unfortunately, comprised of ionized radiation. There are three things that typically create dangerous space radiation:

  • Trapped radiation: The Earth’s core creates a magnetic field that surrounds our planet up to several thousand kilometers from our planet’s surface. Solar wind carries charged particles that slam into our magnetic shield. Some particles manage to pass through. Those that don’t create a shockwave that deflects from Earth’s magnetic field. This creates layers of cavities called the “magnetosphere” that act as shock absorbers to protect Earth further from charged particle bombardment. But some particles get trapped in these cavities and they become radioactive belts surrounding Earth. Astronauts have to pass through these dangerous belts before they reach deeper space.
  • Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR): Outside our solar system ionized atoms traveling at almost light speed pass through space matter, including humans and man-made objects unless they are properly shielded.
  • Solar Particle Events (SPE): Sometimes the Sun flares and ejects copious amounts of highly charged radioactive particles into space. These particles travel so fast they are capable of reaching Earth within ten minutes of a solar or coronal flare event. These are dramatic happenings that temporarily drastically increase radiation exposure.

Astronauts traveling through space radiation or living in the ISS have to be protected from space radiation. Radiation exposure causes damage to human cells. There is a scientific formula used to calculate how much radiation exposure an astronaut can expect when working on the ISS. It’s a bit too complicated for the gringa to understand. These calculations are the reason ISS missions have a maximum six month cycle and spacewalks are limited. Exposure is increased during a spacewalk to perform repairs and maintenance.

Shielding is preferred to be constructed of materials like polyethylene because it has a high hydrogen content. This kind of material is more effective than metals at reducing the ability of particles to pass through and enter the modules. Astronauts also wear monitors called “dosimeters” that constantly measure the level of radiation damage to the chromosomes in their blood cells.

Every single astronaut is a hero. No matter what the duration of their mission. No matter what the nature of their mission. No matter what it is they did, whether it seemed glamorous or insignificant, these men and women are heroes of science. They are risking their lives every moment they are off the surface of the Earth. Even if they return safely, they have still sacrificed much. From musculo-skeletal issues to organ damage and higher cancer risks, every single astronaut will experience the effects of radiation exposure for a lifetime despite the measures taken to protect them. If you ever meet an astronaut thank them for their invaluable sacrifice and service performing critical scientific endeavors that are helping us understand our origins, learn about climate change conditions and create solutions to save our homeworld.

Sources:

jsc.nasa.gov

spaceflight.nasa.gov

Image source:  antarcticglaciers.org

 

The Case Of The Missing Matter


Some time back the gringa wrote about dark matter. This is invisible stuff in the universe that we only knows exists because of its gravitational affect upon other objects in space. Now scientists have a bit of a conundrum. It’s not bad enough that we have to accept the reality of lots of invisible stuff surrounding us but we also have to deal with the mystery that some of this stuff has just disappeared. Scientists want to know just where all this missing matter has got to. This is what they call the “global missing baryon problem”.

The easiest explanation of the “global missing baryon problem” goes something like this:

Baryon – this is a subatomic particle that has a mass equal to or greater than a proton. Despite the fact that the universe is incredibly vast, scientists, through mathematical formulas using their knowledge of how many protons are found in specific types of matter, can actually calculate how many atoms, protons, electrons, neutrons and baryons should be present in a galaxy. It seems that the expected number of baryons is coming up short. The baryon shortfall affects visible matter as well as dark matter.

The gringa would like to know just where the heck these baryons have gotten to and does it really matter in the grand scheme of things? I mean, am I going to wake up tomorrow and discover that half my ear is missing, or my flower pot has disappeared? Dear reader, you understand what I’m talking about. Is this something that we should really be worried about or is it just an enigmatic puzzle for scientists to puzzle over?

Australian astronomers from the Compact Array station claim that they know what has happened to the baryons. They believe that they are part of invisible structures in the Sagittarius constellation of our own Milky Way. And they are whopping big. The swath of space that Earth cuts as it makes a one year transit around the Sun is about the scope of the structures’ expected size. The telescopes used in Australia are radio telescopes so even though these dark matter structures are invisible, the Australian array is able to detect their presence in the Sagittarius constellation by “seeing” the gravitational affect on nearby stars and detecting changes in radio wavelengths within light.

Now, we’re not talking about invisible extra-terrestrial shopping malls. Astronomers are positing that it is more likely that the structures are large clouds of gas. They describe their shape as noodle-like. The gringa thinks maybe these are the spaghettified remains of objects sucked through a black hole. Scientists believe they are hollow. However, there is also the possibility that they are flat and one dimensional, like a bed sheet and they are viewing the edge. The gringa says, “Who the heck knows?! That about sums it up.”

Whatever they are and however they came about are distinct mysteries. All scientists really know is that they exist. The structures were discovered in 2014 when light from quasar PKS 1939-315 passed through the structures and became distorted. The light itself was not distorted but, rather, the radio wavelength band. Because the light intensity was not affected, it is believed that the invisible structures are dark matter that contain no dust. Kind of like light passing through a drinking glass. If the glass is clean, the light passes through just as bright on exit as on entry but still distorted. If the glass is dusty, the brightness of the light passing through dims in addition to the distortion produced by the glass’ matter itself.

These structures are not just sitting there twiddling their thumbs. Scientists have estimated that they are traveling about 30 miles per second (or 50 kilometers per second). Seeing as how they are about 3,000 light years away, the gringa’s not afraid of a surreptitious impact with invisible “stuff”.

But do the scientists know if this missing stuff serves a purpose? It seems that everything else in nature has a purpose, its own vital part in the grand scheme of things. These invisible structures could be very important. The gringa thinks it’s great to study them but we may not want to go messing about and interfering. Who knows what the heck could happen!

It seems that there are multiple theories on what their purpose is. Some scientists believe that the structures don’t behave like un-structured dark matter. Dark matter does not follow rotational and orbit patterns and could serve a purpose like cosmic fibers that hold galaxies together. However, scientists are not so sure that once dark matter forms structures like this their cosmic fiber job is still what they are doing. The gringa wonders if maybe they are just big galactic recycle bins, containing left over bits of matter that are left over from the creation process stars go through.

Basically, scientists only know that they are there. Bing, bang, boom, and that’s it. It’s like saying, “Hey, a giant, invisible elephant lives in your house and we don’t know how he got there or why he stays and if he is doing anything that affects your life. But we just thought you would like to know that he’s there.” Yeah, thanks guys.

Sources:

www.yahoo.com

arxiv.org

www.narrabri.atnf.csiro.au

www.iflscience.com

Image Source: www.ottawa-rasc.ca

 

 

 

 

The Infinite Possibilities of the Unobserved


Quantum physics is, perhaps, the craziest thing for the gringa to try to understand. Recently the results of some very interesting time experiments have been publicized when a physicist, Yakir Aharonov, published a paper on the curious things he has discovered. Since it all seems utterly impossible and to simply state the results would sound like the ravings of a gringa gone mad, I will begin at the beginning and explain the “double slit” experiment.

Tiny pieces of matter (such as atoms, atom sized objects, electrons or photons) are propelled toward a screen containing two slits. A camera is set up on the back side of the screen which records where the “bits” land.

Sometimes a scientist will close one of the slits and the camera will predict the expected pattern of where the bits will land as they shoot through the remaining open slit. (Sounds pretty simple so far.)

When both slits remain open, something called “interference pattern” occurs. That means that instead of acting like projectiles shooting forward in a straight path, the bits begin to behave in wave-like patterns (They begin to behave unpredictably. The bits is misbehavin’!).

When bits begin misbehaving in a wave-like interference pattern, crazier things can happen. A single photon goes through both slits at the same time. In other words, a bit interferes with itself. And sometimes the bit doesn’t go through either slit. What occurs to the bit on a quantum level is that the bit begins expressing a “wave” of potential possibilities. It actually expresses all the possibilities and that is why it seems to be interfering with itself. The bit gets shot toward the slits and as it approaches it says to itself, “Well, I could go through the right slot.” (which it does)  Then it says, “Or, I could go through the left slot.” (which it does) Then it says, “Or I could do neither.” (which it does) And it performs all three available options at the exact same time.

This seems impossible but Aharonov’s documented experiment proves that it does happen. What the heck does this mean for humans? Why would something like this matter about matter?

Before the gringa answers those questions, let me share another conclusion of the experiment that will blow your mind. As soon as this non-sentient (is it?) bit of matter realizes it is being observed, the wave-like effect of expressing all possibilities coalesces into one path. When the bit realizes it is being watched and measured, it makes a choice and sticks with it. Just like how someone misbehavin’ straightens up when they realize someone is watching. (Matter has a naughty streak).

Conclusion #1 – Unwatched matter enjoys every possibility of existence.

Conclusion #2 – Once matter is observed, it selects a single possibility of existence and maintains that choice.

Conclusion #3 – The simple act of observation affects how matter behaves.

Conclusion #4 – The reality that we see potentially does not exist once we are no longer looking at it.

The consciousness of humans and animals may be responsible for creating our world as we know it. Subatomic particles are responding to the visual cues of humans and animals to create the world of matter surrounding us. Although it feels and seems very real it is an optical illusion of our own creation because subatomic particles are choosing one state of existence in response to being aware of our collective consciousness’ being aware of their existence.

On a much deeper level, quantum science can then prove that the conscious efforts of humans can then shape the future and reshape the past. But that is fodder for another interesting, mind-boggling gringa discussion.

The gringa’s dear readers can view a Dr. Quantum’s video on the double slit experiment below:

 

Source: http://www.cosmicscientist.com

Image Credit: http://www.in5d.com

 

Calling All Young People! Physics Is Phun!


If kids are finding science studies boring and exhibit no interest in pursuing a career in something like physics, they just haven’t made the right connections! Look, the future of our planet’s survival depends on every generation producing fantastic scientific minds with a passion for discovery. And, trust the gringa, science, especially physics, is anything BUT boring! I mean, just check out this amazing GIF and video that illustrate physics in action. One looks like dots traveling in a straight line but they are actually traveling on curves. The other looks like the dots are traveling in a circular pattern but they are actually traveling in a straight line:

tumblr_o17qz1y1Rf1r2geqjo1_540

Now that the gringa’s got your attention, what exactly can a person do as a physicist? Well, you can create really cool art like this or you could work for other people. If you work for NASA you can follow their astrophysics goal:  “Discover how the universe works, explore how it began and evolved and search for life on planets and other stars.” To do that involves all sorts of interesting work like:

  • Stargazing through incredible observatories like: Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Spitzer Space Telescope
  • Work with teams from all over the world: European Space Agency and Japan’s JAXA space agency
  • Perform all sorts of wacky experiments to test theories about things like: black holes, the Big Bang, dark matter, dark energy, existence of extra-terrestrial life, suitability of distant planets to support life
  • Design any manner of dangerous stuff mom and dad won’t let you build in the garage: rockets, lasers, rocket fuel, robots, super colliders that annihilate atoms

So kids, get excited about science! If it’s boring in the classroom, search for inspiration. There are folks like physicist Derek Muller who makes science loads of fun. On his blog and YouTube channel, “Veritasium”, you can learn about science in a way that is interesting and also relevant to what the world needs to day. Check out one of the gringa’s favorite videos of Muller’s (grapes + microwave = plasma):

Look, kids, the truth is agencies like NASA needs you. Your mom and dad need you. The entire world needs you. Let’s face it, the world is in need of some major repair. The days of Batman and Flash Gordon are over. The heroes the world needs now are scientists. So, put on your goggles (and a cape if it inspires you) and get crackin’.

 

Sources: www.nasa.govhttps://www.youtube.com/channel/UCHnyfMqiRRG1u-2MsSQLbXA, Tumblr_o17qz1y1Rf1r2geqjo1_540, www.facebook.com/physicsastrophysics

Image Source:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hello Over There


Science is fascinating although there is much of it that is way beyond the gringa’s limited understanding. I guess that’s why I am a big fan of science fiction. It doesn’t matter if it makes sense or not, it is pretend science for the sake of entertainment.  However, it seems that sometimes the two intersect and then I just don’t know what to think.

I have often watched science fiction movies, or read science fiction novels, that were set in a parallel universe. Now, some physicists have revealed that the existence of a universe parallel to our own may not be a fictional idea. It may be real!

They call this the “Many Interacting World” (MIW) theory. And it means much more than just the existence of multiple worlds. It contends that there are actually multiple universes and that they interact with one another on a quantum physics level.  So, then I only have to understand what quantum physics is!

The simplest definition of quantum physics explains that it is a branch of science that studies the behavior of matter like atoms and photons. So, basically the MIW theory premise is that atoms and the minutest particles of parallel universes interact with one another.  So, basically, everyone and everything here on Earth is being touched, albeit invisibly, by another world.

Now, consider the gringa’s September 2, 2015, post, “What’s The Matter With Dark Matter”. There we learned that dark matter is invisible and passing through Earth all the darn time. This is pretty much the same concept except rather than just passing through and minding their own business, parallel worlds may, at times, actually interact with our own.

This theory has been developed through performing mathematical calculations as well as understanding how energy waves behave. You see, sometimes strange things, inexplicable according to our known scientific understanding of matter, occur when messing about with quantum mechanics’ experiments. When applying typical cause and effect principals that work on Earthly matter to a quantum mechanics’ experiment, the expected result does not occur. The oddities are explained as being due to the possibility of a parallel universe interacting in a subtle and non-detectable way to affect the outcome of the experiment.

The gringa wonders if this is a form of communication. What if one of these parallel universes is further advanced than our own and is aware of not only our existence, but also of our quantum physics experimentation? What if they observe these experiments (through dark matter spy molecules zipping about unbeknownst to us lower developed humans) then poke their nose in and interfere in such a way as to leave us scratching our heads, wondering what the heck just happened so that we will suspect outside interference from another world. They could be trying to get our attention! And scientists are definitely on high alert.

In the 1950s Hugh Everett, an American physicist, explained that quantum particles are not limited to a single state. At the same time, they can be in two states. That would be like saying, at the very same time, your stomach is empty yet also full. He called this the “many worlds” theory and suggested that quantum particles occupy two places at the same time, co-existing in two different realities. This means that, for each particle:

  • A single version of reality could branch out into infinite branches of alternate realities.
  • An alternate reality is a separate existence.

The point of difference between the “many worlds” theory and the MIW theory is that the “many worlds” idea premises that individual realities are not able to interact with one another while MIW speculates that parallel universes overlap one another and can influence each other.

The MIW theory claims three critical points:

  • There are possibly an infinite number of universes and some may be virtually identical.
  • All universes are equally real. (Imagine, another gringa out there! I wonder if she is my arch-nemesis and an evil tyrant? Maybe she’s a ballerina! With my luck she’s probably a chicken sexer… Yes, that is actually a job at chicken farms!)
  • There is a magnetic law of repulsion that prevents universes from interacting. (Hence the theory that the other gringa is a “repulsive” evil tyrant.)

Which brings me to ask if meditative practices that create altered forms of consciousness are putting people into contact with beings just as real as us but in a parallel universe, rather than in contact with a spiritual being. Could the MIW theory solve many religious questions about what exactly is an angel, deity or jinn? Could they actually have been beings, just as real as you or I, who existed in a parallel universe that was more highly advanced and had the technology to communicate with our universe? Could they have stopped in to say “hello”, saw what a mess we had made of things, sent messengers for centuries to try to teach us to be better, then finally gave up on us altogether?

Are they spying on every single one of us all the time? Brings the concept of “personal space” to a whole new level. The gringa will never again know the satisfaction of picking my nose in the privacy of my own powder room. Overindulging in an insomniac episode of chocolate while everyone else sleeps will never again seem a secret victory. Who knows, we could all be the reality TV stars of another world!

 

Sources: www.themindunleashed.org, www.mnn.com, www.phys.org

Image credit:  http://www.wn.com

 

 

 

What’s The Matter With Dark Matter?


The first thing that is the matter with dark matter is that it is not “dark” at all. It’s invisible. It neither emits nor absorbs light.

The second thing that is the matter with dark matter is that the fate of mankind depends on something that science only “infers” to exist. This invisible, theoretical, dark matter holds the existence of the universe in its unseen “hands”.  Scientific principles regarding gravity conclude that without this elusive dark matter every star, planet, and all humans as well, would go flying willy-nilly into outer space.

The third thing that is the matter with dark matter is that if it exists, it is then possible that dark matter creates a parallel, invisible world. All the happenings of another civilization could very well be happening right under our very noses and humankind is completely left out of the loop. How utterly curious. Could this parallel world have a cure for cancer? Does cancer even exist there? Are there political factions squabbling for power? Would such a world even need governance? What a fascinating idea.

These matters are why such a hubbub is made within the scientific community about dark matter. The simplest definition of dark matter is that it is nonluminous (dark, invisible) material that is hypothesized (scientifically assumed) to exist in space. It is thought that it can have different forms such as:

  • Cold Dark Matter: particles that are slow moving when compared to the speed of light and interact weakly with ordinary matter and electromagnetic radiation
  • Warm Dark Matter: particles with properties that could possibly be sterile neutrinos and/or gravitinos, and travel faster than cold dark matter but slower than hot dark matter
  • Hot Dark Matter: (no, not an erotic vampire novel) high-energy particles, moving randomly, and do not interact with electromagnetic radiation

Dark matter is theorized to have been created soon after the Big Bang. Therefore understanding dark matter is critical to understanding and supporting the Big Bang theory. Scientists tend to gravitate toward the theory of the creation of the Universe through the building blocks of cold dark matter after the Big Bang. Structures would grow from the bottom up by smaller objects collapsing because of their own gravity. These collapsed structures would then merge and form larger objects with greater mass. Theorizing that the Universe evolved from cold dark matter collapsing and structural fragments merging resolves the questions of how individual galaxies formed.

Warm dark matter and hot dark matter alone could not hold up under scientific scrutiny as to being the original building blocks of the Universe. Although, it may very well have been a mixed bag of all three forms of dark matter creating structures that ultimately resulted in the Universe as we know it today, such a theory, the Mixed Dark Matter theory, is generally rejected.

The universe that is currently known to man consists of about five percent of matter that is classified as “ordinary”. That means that about five percent of the universe consists of matter with mass that is comprised of atoms, or ions, with a nucleus and protons and neutrons. Cosmologists call these “baryons”. This is the matter humans can see.

If ordinary matter only makes up about five percent of the universe, what is the remaining ninety-five percent made up of? About seventy percent is “dark energy”, or, a theoretical energy in the form of a repulsive force counteracting gravity which results in an accelerated expansion of the universe. Dark matter is thought to make up the balance. It sounds like a recipe straight out of Frankenstein’s laboratory: seven cups of dark energy, three cups of dark matter, and a splash of ordinary matter. Voila, Universe!

Detecting dark matter requires a whole new level of thinking. It does not absorb light. It does not emit light. It produces no detectable levels of electromagnetic radiation. If it’s invisible, and cannot be seen with a telescope, how do cosmologists and astronomers know it exists? Scientists infer the existence of dark matter. When astrophysicists measure the mass of large objects in space, such as stars, they discover discrepancies with regard to gravitational effects. When things just don’t add up, the scientists scratch their heads and ask, “Why do these heavenly bodies generate a gravitational effect that should actually be created by an object with greater mass?”

Questions such as these were being asked as early as 1932 when scientist Jan Oort, a Dutch astronomer, suggested dark matter was to blame for the orbital speed of the stars within the Milky Way galaxy. The following year Swiss astronomer, Fritz Zwicky, also believed dark matter was the culprit for the “missing mass” issue. However, it would take another thirty years before compelling evidence could assist the theory of dark matter in gaining ground in the scientific community.

In the 1960’s and 1970’s, American astronomer, Vera Rubin, was deeply entrenched in her controversial work on galaxy clusters. Working alongside Kent Ford, an astronomer and instrument maker, the pair used his spectrometer design to view the light spectrums of spiral galaxies. Their discovery is called the Rubin-Ford effect.

This phenomenon describes the movement of the Milky Way galaxy relative to sample galaxies. Rubin and Ford theorized that the difference in motion of these galaxies, compared to the Milky Way’s motion, was relative to cosmic microwave background radiation. Rubin then focused on studying the rotation curves of galaxies. This led to the discovery of discrepancies between predicted angular motion of galaxies and the actual observed motion of the galaxies.

The gravity of stars within rotating galaxies is what prevents these galaxies from flying apart. Such strong gravitational forces require immense mass. Rubin’s calculations revealed that such galaxies contained much more mass than could be accounted for by the stars they contained. Attempting to explain this discrepancy became known as the “galaxy rotation problem” and led to the conclusion that dark matter must then exist.

One of Rubin’s observations showed that as much as six times more “dark” mass existed in galaxies than ordinary matter. Her work was highly controversial at the time and continued to be studied, tested, debated and discussed. As more astronomers did their own studies with conclusions that supported Rubin’s assertions, it became well established within the scientific community that most galaxies are predominately “dark matter”.

The result of Rubin and Ford’s work has led to innovative methods of observing galaxies. One such method, gravitational lensing, was used to examine background objects within the Bullet Cluster in attempts to identify the presence of dark matter. Light bends as it travels away from the source to the observer. It is the mass of the observed object which causes the light to bend. The greater the mass, the stronger the gravitational field it creates, thus a greater degree of bending of the rays of light. When light is then bent to a degree greater than would be indicated by the known mass of the astronomical object, dark matter is then assumed to be at play to account for this mathematical anomaly.

Scientists have used gravitational microlensing to conduct large searches throughout the Milky Way galaxy. Astronomical evidence indicates that the universe contains much more matter than what is visible to mankind. Some scientists have even speculated that a parallel world is possible that consists of dark matter and can only interact with the universe as we know it through gravity.

When measuring the velocity of rotation as compared to the distance from the center of a spiral galaxy, such as the Milky Way galaxy, the mathematical discrepancy reveals that the cluster’s mass consists of very little of the ordinary matter objects that are visible. Scientists then suggest that dark matter is concentrated in a halo formation surrounding the visible matter. A dark matter parallel world could perhaps be found in the “halos” around astronomical objects. Since dark matter contains no atoms, like ordinary matter, it cannot interact with ordinary matter through electromagnetics. Dark matter contains no electrical charge. Hence, gravity is the only interactive relationship between dark matter and ordinary matter as the theory is understood at this time.

Spiral galaxies are not alone in containing dark matter. Studies conducted with gravitational lensing reveal that dark matter may very well be present in elliptical galaxies. Within dark halos that surround such galaxies, X-ray emissions indicate atmospheric extensions of hot gas which could support the existence of dark matter. Using X-ray emissions to estimate dark matter existence is achieved by measuring the energy and fluctuation of the X-rays. These measurements can be used to estimate the temperature and density of the gas producing the X-rays as well as the pressure of the gas. A profile of mass can be created by assuming that the gas pressure balances with the present gravity. Discrepancies would then be attributed to dark matter.

As with anything, there are, of course, exceptions to the rule. Globular clusters are thought to perhaps contain no dark matter. Cardiff University astronomers discovered galaxy VIRGOHI21 in 2005 and believe it to be made up entirely of dark matter and absent of any visible stars. So, there is diversity and oddities even amongst the stars.

Dark matter within our very own Milky Way galaxy is, apparently, “wimpy”. Every second of every day millions, perhaps even billions, of weakly interacting massive particles, also known as WIMPs, pass through this globe humans call home. Experiments of detection are vigorously underway searching for these invisible invaders. Because WIMPs do not interact with matter, it is thought that they can be detected by measuring energy and momentum discrepancies as they zip about, collide and annihilate each other. This is one of the studies conducted in supercolliders.

What does the discovery of dark matter mean for mankind? For the scientific community, it is simply another wonderful puzzle to be solved. For the regular person moving through life every day, it might mean a new awareness of the possibility of an invisible world right next to you. Average people who simply want to rise from a chair and cross the room may find themselves compelled to politely mutter the words, “Please excuse me.” These words may appear to be uttered to an empty room containing no one who needs their pardon begged. No, these people are not crazy and talking to themselves, they are simply considering that the room could contain invisible, dark matter co-habitants that find it very disturbing when a human walks right through them without even a, “How do you do?”