Re-Blog: Ancient Spaceports In Iraq? Ya Don’t Say?!


(Originally posted 9/28/2017 on Read With The Gringa)

Well, the gringa’s at it again… de-bunking UFO conspiracies. Sorry to spoil everyone’s fun. But, I assure you that there is no ancient alien connection inspiring countries like the US to embark on military strategies in order to gain control of Iraq. A review of the “evidence” will prove this to be so.


We’ve all heard of the stories of how Iraq’s antiquities have been looted because of the long, on-going conflict in that country. The nation is a wealth of history and artifacts. Iraq was once the famed Babylon of old. It was the heart of education, art, religion and science. 


A diverse, cosmopolitan population was comprised of the brightest minds invited to come and enrich the academic world of ancient Babylon. Artists, composers, and every other creative mind once longed for those dreamy deserts and never-ending horizons of the Middle East. But the knowledge and the scientific and cultural advancements that accompanied higher thinking is not to be credited to space alien influence.


Ancient alien theorists and UFOlogists are attributing ancient spaceship launches to a speech recently delivered by Iraq’s Transport Minister. What, exactly, did this man say? Was there something misunderstood in translation? Was he speaking in satire rather than literally? Let’s examine the words of Minister Kadhem Finjan Al-Hamami when he spoke at the opening ceremony of a new airport in Dhi Qar of southern Iraq:

“It’s a long story, maybe you don’t know about it. Maybe even people from Dhi Qar don’t know – the first airports that were built on planet Earth were built in the 5th Millenium BC in Dhi Qar. There were Sumerians who launched spaceships and headed to other worlds.”

Al-Hamami’s remarks were met with confusion by the panel behind him as well as the people in the audience. It also turns out that he has a reputation for making outrageous statements. He once claimed that he was so old that he had also ridden on Noah’s Ark. Needless to say, the gringa doubts he really believes this Sumerian spaceship nonsense. What he more likely believes is political strategy.


What would be politically strategic about making such an outrageous claim? Why risk your political integrity and credibility? Well, one reason would be to normalize a fringe belief on behalf of a benefactor that has a vested interest in normalizing something otherwise considered crazy.


The theory that Sumerians were more than scientists, architects and astronomers as well as space travelers is the work of Russian professor Samuel Kramer. Russia has a desire to gain influence in Iraq in order to protect its big oil interests more effectively. And what better way to stroke the national ego of a country than to provide historical information that proves that country had once been superior to every other country on the planet?


But why the space alien angle? Because it can neither be proven or disproven, for one thing. But Russia has been working to normalize space alien theories for decades. Why? For Russia, it would mean opportunity. In fact, many opportunities. 


Who are the nations that represent the largest threat to Russian dominance? The US and allied western European nations. The discovery of space alien life would throw such nations into an existential crisis. For countries structured around Judeo-Christianity, their societies would suddenly be in cultural upheaval. Everything they believed would become falsehood. And in such chaos is opportunity to then re-form an entire society’s thinking.


And if those society’s learned that their governments had been keeping such a secret, those governments would no longer be trusted. There would be political revolution. And before that revolution stabilized into a new national version based on new knowledge, there would be years and years of factional division and chaos.


If this past year’s political chaos has not made a believer out of a person that Russia thrives when other nations are in chaos, then you have been sleeping straight through history being made. And Russia is wholly committed to the space alien angle as just one more way to keep everyone else knocked off balance and distracted from what Russia is really doing.


Over and over Russian operatives seed explosive space alien related stories. In 2010 they claimed to have discovered alien micro-organisms in comet space dust. 2014 brought an announcement from Russia’s International Space Station mission chief, Vladimir Solovyev, that space sea plankton had been found. NASA denied the reports but no such denial ever was issued from Rocosmos, Russia’s space agency. And about one month later, Germany’s space agency, The German Aerospace Center (DLR), called the material “bacterial DNA” rather than sea plankton.


So, when it comes to what may seem very credible reports because they link with what seems to be a legitimate organization, the gringa says, “Beware!” Although, so far, Americans have been lucky enough to have our own NASA unblemished by political agendas and ambitions, the same is not true for Rocosmos. That being said, trace back to the source any UFO or space alien claims. If they originate from Russia, consider the political motive. Then consider the scientific credibility as dubious.


The gringa does not deny the possibility that space aliens exist. I also don’t deny the possibility of ancient Earth civilizations that were highly advanced. But, thus far, I have yet to find any confirmation through credible evidence. I simply keep an open mind and I keep reading! And I always  READ SMART!

Sources:

Albawaba

Newsweek

The Hill

Image Credit: BECUO

Video Credit: MEMRI TV

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Re-Blog: Do Space Aliens Use Aluminum?


(Originally posted 9/21/2017 on Read With The Gringa)

The famous 1947 Roswell incident of a supposed crashed alien spacecraft reported curious details. Rancher W.W. “Mack” Brazel described the debris he found as: large pieces of paper covered in what looked like tinfoil. The pieces were held together by small sticks. The salvaged piece of debris resembled a child’s homemade kite. Throughout a 200 yard area surrounding the silvery kite thing were pieces of gray rubber. More kite-like objects were found on the ranch, the largest about 3 feet across.

Another, more recent, discovery has researchers scratching their heads over a mysterious aluminum object. UFOlogists claim that it could be 250,000 years old. It was originally discovered in Romania during a 1973 excavation of the Mures River. 


Three strange objects were found buried about 33 feet. Archaeologists studied them and determined that two of the finds were fossils. They were bones belonging to a mammal that became extinct about 90,000 years ago.


The third, however, could only be man-made since it was a metallic object, not a raw metal ore. Testing revealed 12 different metals with aluminum making up about 90% of the manufactured object.


A Romanian laboratory claimed the object was about 250,000 years old. Other experts were in disbelief so another set of tests were performed in a laboratory in Lausanne, Switzerland. They confirmed that the object is, indeed, old, but not that old. Only 400-80,000 years old. But aluminum was first produced by modern man about 200 years ago.


This head scratcher centers on an object about 8 inches long, 5 inches wide and nearly 3 inches thick. It also has a circular depression and machined holes in the “arms”, suggesting hinging. This means the manufacturing process would have been very complex. So what the heck is it?

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UFOlogists say it is a fragment from a UFO. Of course. Historians claim that it is really a piece of WWII German aircraft. Considering the effective debunking that has cleared up the Roswell mystery, the gringa is inclined to agree with the historian.


The US Air Force eventually explained to the public what it was that Brazel found. It wasn’t the debris of a crashed UFO. It was the debris of weather radar targets. 


These targets were sent up to help target and tune ballistics of heavy gun and artillery. Regular weather balloons were acquisitioned from weather radar stations. The balloons were then customized to become targets, covered in aluminum so they would be easier to sight high in the sky.


In order for it to even be possible for aluminum debris from a crashed UFO to be found, aluminum would have to be a raw material on other planets. It would have to be mined. It would have to be processed. And it would have to be suitable for use on a spacecraft exposed to the extreme conditions of outer space: radiation, heat, cold, etc.


Aluminum is also found on Mercury, Venus and Mars. So it’s possible there are planets in the vastness of outer space that also have aluminum. We know that there are no aluminum mines and processing plants and spaceship manufacturing plants on Mercury, Venus and Mars. That would mean any UFO constructed of aluminum would have to originate outside our Solar System. Could aluminum handle such a rigorous test of its mettle (pardon the pun)?


Aluminum melts at 1,220.58 degrees Fahrenheit. It boils at 4,566 degrees Fahrenheit. Space shuttle re-entry has recorded surface temperatures of the craft as high as 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Needless to say, if these bits of aluminum had originated from a crashed UFO, they wouldn’t exist. They would have melted long before they ever reached the earth’s surface.


The final answer is then: No. Space aliens are not using aluminum in their space ships and crashing them on Earth and leaving behind an aluminum bread crumb trail. Case solved.



Sources: El Paso Times

The Vintage News

Live Science

Wikipedia

Image Credit: Pix Shark

Video Credit: Titus Rivas

Re-Blog: Plasma Power Is Problematic


(Originally posted 9/7/2017 on Read With The Gringa)

If the gringa’s dear readers are anything like herself, you have spent plenty of time watching shows like Star Trek and reading fantastic science fiction. That means you’ve heard plenty of references to plasma: plasma storms, plasma discharges, plasma cannons, etc. But what the heck is plasma? Is it good for anything? Can we harness its power? Here’s the scoop on plasma.


Plasma is an ionized gas. What that means is that atoms, molecules and all kinds of stuff are constantly being converted into ions. This happens by removing electrons from the affected substance. An ion contains an electrical charge when conversion is complete. That means plasma packs a wallop of a punch. And there is lots of plasma throughout our Universe.


The Sun’s mass makes up nearly the entire mass of our Solar System, 99.85% of it. That mass creates gravity so powerful it squishes things together, like atoms, creating a fusion reaction which makes… wait for it… PLASMA.


99.999% of the Sun is plasma. Scientists estimate that more than 99% of all matter exists in a plasma state. If so much of it is lying about, why aren’t we humans using it for electricity and power and stuff? Why are we still in the Stone Ages with coal and petroleum? Because cosmic plasma is a bit trickier than the plasma we find here on Earth, like lightning. The Sun’s plasma is not just electrified. It also has its own magnetic field. And, boy is it hot!

Because of the magnetics that are part and parcel of the Sun’s plasma, harnessing our nearest star as an energy source would prove to be highly disruptive to communications. Basically, radio frequencies would fry. You see, the Sun is a fusion nuclear reactor way up in the sky. The gringa’s not sure, then, if direct solar power would really be “green” energy.


To harness the power of cosmic plasma for terrestrial use, scientists would have to, theoretically, confine the reactor. Yep, that means putting the Sun in a box, so to speak. Despite years of research, little progress has been made to figure out how to do that and humanity survive in the end. One reason is because scientists have no idea how cosmic plasma and the resulting fusion reaction would affect any barrier they might construct as a containment field. Yeah, those invisible forcefields on Star Trek? Mm hmm. Pure fantasy.


But despite this frustration, scientists remain committed to finding a solution. They are well aware that the current energy sources of Earthlings are finite. One day all the coal will be gone. There will be no more crude to suck from the ground. And even developing more solar and wind energy supplies will only take the entire globe so far. Large industrial areas and densely populated regions will need the power of plasma if they want a constant, reliable power supply.


But why can’t scientists seem to make any progress? In order to test a theory, a scientist must conduct a controlled experiment that re-creates the conditions. Since there is no way to reproduce the 15 million degree Fahrenheit temperature of the Sun, um, yeah, progress is pretty much going nowhere. 


Sure, science has come up with fun gadgets like plasma balls that are basically sold as lighting novelties. But that glass bottle is not anywhere close to being sufficient to bottle a chunk of the Sun. Scientists literally have to find a way to put a sizable piece of the Sun inside of something.


And finding a substance that can withstand temperatures in excess of the 100 million degrees produced by fusion reactions has to do more than not melt. When the plasma comes into contact with the barrier, it must remain pure and clean. 


The gringa can only wonder what the heck might happen should those walls fail. Will half the globe be scorched to infinity in a split second? Will the survivors on the other side of the globe become so radiated they die a slow, agonizing death over the course of the next few weeks or months? Or will a wave of plasma ride the ionosphere to the other side and the survivors know that death is on the way because their blue sky turns blood-red? Or will they basically be cooked alive from a sudden increase in temperature? In other words, will the entire globe become a microwave oven?


Scientists claim that plasma energy will be the cleanest energy ever. Yet, at the same time they are conducting research on the effects of radiation and plasma damage. So, the gringa remains skeptical about the “green” selling points.


Science communities around the world hope to have the first plasma reactor operational by 2018.

Nuclear science professors at MIT explain that the general public shouldn’t expect any real development of commercial plasma fusion reactors for about two more decades. The gringa will be at an age by that time where I might actually appreciate the prospect of a quick and relatively painless death. But, for the sake of my children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren, I suppose I should keep a watchful eye on the developments of this future energy source.


Sources:

Plasma Universe


Science Learn


University of California San Diego


Image Credit: Space.com

Video Credits:

Science Channel


Seeker

Underground Martian Civilization? Yay or Nay?


(Originally posted on Read With The Gringa 7/11/2017)

Alien hunters have reported that a NASA photo reveals evidence of an underground city on Mars. Is this for real? How does one de-bunk or verify? Well, let’s take a look together.  NASA explains that the image below is a small mesa surrounded by sand dunes on what is called the Noctis Labyrinthyus at the western edge of the Valles Marineris on Mars.

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The gringa thinks the description by NASA of these formations being created by sedimentary deposits is probably accurate, rather than believe it is the ancient remains of an underground civilization. Scientists believe that over time the boulders of a Mars of long ago have since been eroded by the winds that blast across the surface of Mars, resulting in the formation of the mesa. These winds have also blown out sand that once filled the cratered mesa, revealing it as we see it now.

Now, Mars is a very windy place. There are not natural wind breaks like treelines or mountain ranges. The surface of Mars is incredibly vulnerable to the slightest atmospheric disturbance. Wind speeds have been recorded at rates of 60 mph. Although that is about half the velocity of Earth’s hurricane force winds, remember that the atmosphere on Mars is about 1% the density of Earth’s. That means particles remain suspended longer and pack a greater whollop when they hit something.

Now, the UFO hunters who claim that this cratered mesa is a superstructure, particularly a ventilation shaft of an ancient underground Martian city, the gringa has a few questions about why ancient Martians would need to live underground. You see, although Mars is a wasteland today, it hasn’t always been so. Scientists theorize that once upon a time Mars was much like Earth, lush, green and having vast surface water resources.

Geological studies by NASA reveal trace minerals and a chemistry that indicates a very Earth-like Martian past. The Curiosity rover has detected chemicals that point to an ancient oxygen rich atmosphere on Mars. Ancient lake beds exist. Groundwater is thought to have once filled the Gale Crater.

Before Mars lost its protective magnetic field, the planet would have also enjoyed a greenhouse effect. It would have been warmer. The warming would have been the result of multiple meteor impacts kicking up dust and debris into the atmosphere where it became trapped and acted as an insulator. Although this is only a theory requiring much more geological research, it is consistent with computerized modeling of an ancient Mars that has evolved into the Mars we see today. But the warm, green, wet Mars of billions of years ago disappeared once Mars’ magnetic field disappeared.

Thus the flaw in the claim of UFOlogists that the cratered mesa is a ventilation shaft from an ancient Martian underground civilization. You see, these same UFOlogists peddle  this ancient Martian civilization scenario as a means to support their belief that humans are the ancestors of Martians, who seeded a colony on Earth when they recognized that their planet was dying.

But the problem with this scenario, pointing to an underground Martian civilization millions or billions of years ago, is that at that point in history a humanoid race could have survived on the surface of Mars. There would have been no need to go underground. And if they were invested in a survival escape plan to Earth, surely they wouldn’t have diverted their money, efforts and resources away from their cosmic survival travel project. It would have been a waste to develop an advanced society underground that they knew was ultimately doomed.

So, the gringa tells the dear reader to practice logic, do your research and don’t get duped into believing the fantastic. But enjoy the fantastic for what it is, a pleasurable escape into fantasy for the sheer entertainment value.

Sources: NASA

Chronicle

Space

NASA Goddard

NASA Rover

Astrobio

Image Credits:  NASA

Science Vibe

Video Credit: RT America

Re-Post: Say Hello To Baby Aliens On Enceladus


(Originally posted on Read With The Gringa 7/6/17)

If scientists discover microbial life one of Saturn’s moons, is this a big deal? Well, the gringa supposes that humans could officially lay to rest the question of whether or not we are alone in the universe. But it does leave open the question of whether or not mankind shares the Universe with intelligent life. After all, I’m not so sure microbial life counts as an intellectual peer for humanity. So what, exactly, did NASA report they found on Enceladus? See for yourself:

So microbes eat hydrogen like candy. Does that mean that life might evolve on Enceladus or that life is dead and gone and this candy is all that’s left? You know, kind of like coming home and finding traces of teenagers in the crumbs left on the sofa and smears of chocolate on the gaming controls.

It means that it’s possible that microbes can exist in Enceladus’ ice covered sea. The next step would be to explore this cosmic ocean, perhaps with a probe that can take samples, to see if microbes are alive and well. But what kind of environmental conditions would microbes need in order to survive? Let’s take a look at some of the basic environmental conditions of Enceladus:

-Surface temperature of -330 degrees F (or -201 degrees C)

-Freshwater ice surface that reflects 100% of sunlight

-5 surface features: cracks, ridges, fissures and crust deformation

-Liquid fresh water sea underneath surface crust of ice

-Tidal forces created upon internal sea by Saturn’s pull, which creates internal heat, so sea temperature would be warmer than surface temperature but still unknown

-Smooth surface plains of ice crust indicate that water once flowed upon the surface, possibly forced upward from eruptions of volcanoes in the interior sea

-No detectable atmosphere

-No magnetic field

Are there any microbes known to man that could survive these conditions?

-Microbe Colwellia psychrerythraea strain 34H can survive temperatures as cold as -320 degrees F. Testing was conducted with liquid nitrogen, which is -321 degrees F.

-No detectable atmosphere and no magnetic field means no protection from radiation. But, as concluded from microbe studies on the International Space Station (ISS), there are microbes that not only survive such conditions, but actually thrive in them: Deinococcus radiodurans, also called the Conan of microbes, could live quite happily in Enceledus’ frigid ocean.

So, if there are microbial Conans alive and well in the interior sea of Enceledus, how long might it take for them to gain some intelligence and start communicating? Well, let’s start with the moon’s suspected age, 100 million years. The earth, by comparison, is thought to be about 4.5 billion years old. Enceledus is just a baby.  It was during Earth’s second phase, the Archean phase, when the first signs of microbial life appeared on Earth. This would have been when Earth was about 1 billion years ago.

So, Enceledus may just be getting started. Those microbes out there in its interior sea? Those could be the earliest seeds of a future humanoid race that evolves to build a bone-chilling, zero oxygen, radiated civilization in another couple of billion years or so. So, just stay tuned, right?

Sources: Science Mag

New Scientist

Sea Sky Org.

BBC

Image Credit: America Space

Video Credit:  NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Did An ET Knock On China’s Space Capsule?


Sometimes, when the gringa is home alone at night, or early in the morning after the caveman leaves for work, my imagination goes into overdrive. I get a little spooked. Should an unexpected noise be heard, that’s it. No sleep for the gringa. But what if you were an astronaut, adrift in the vacuum of space, surrounded by nothingness for thousands of lightyears yet “something” came a-knocking?

I tell ya, the gringa would probably die of fright! There’s certainly no hope for fear to disappear when the sun comes up. No waiting around for the hubby to get back. No paranoid call to 911 for the comfort of a first responder to do a quick looksie around. Nope, an astronaut is all alone for the duration of the mission wondering what the heck just knocked on the door and when or if it’s coming back. Guess what? That actually happened.

Word has it that, back in 2003, when China’s first astronaut in space, Yang Liwei, was performing a 21-hour tour-of-duty aboard Shenzhen 5, something came knocking. He described the noise like the sound of a wooden hammer hitting against a metal bucket. So, he wasn’t spooked by a few creaks or phantom noises created in an over-active imagination like the gringa’s. He described a very distinct, and distinctly loud, noise.

If one eyewitness account of such is not enough for the skeptic, there were other Chinese astronauts who also reported the same banging noise. Consecutive missions, Shenzhou 6 and 7, had astronauts returning to Earth and sharing this news in their de-briefings.

The gringa believes it would be the opportunity of a lifetime to travel into space. Imagine the prestige an astronaut must be looking forward to when they get the news that they are slated for a mission. Certainly they envision a future shaped by this achievement. Success is at hand. With respect to their career, they have, indeed, arrived.

How, then, must it come to them as a terrible disappointment to realize that they will forever be haunted by their space experience. Do some astronauts return to an Earth-bound life, riddled with anxiety, swept up in paranoia that they are stalked by other-worldly watchers? Do they spend the rest of their life feeling a coward’s shame because they didn’t have the guts to answer the door and see who was there?

When interviewed by journalists from Xinhua, Astronaut Liwei explained some of these very emotions. He recounted that when he would hear the knocking, he would become very tense. The gringa thinks, “Yeah. I bet!” He would peek outside the windows only to see nothing. Returning to Earth he spent much time with researchers trying to replicate the noise with a variety of instruments and materials. But they were unsuccessful.

As crews for Shenzhou 6 and 7 were preparing, Liwie warned them that they should expect to hear the noise. He tried to put their minds at ease, assuring them that the noise must be a normal, natural phenomenon. But was Liwie telling the truth or making up a comfortable lie?

The characteristics of the noise were:

-random timing

-no rhythm

-acoustic quality of wood on metal

The Shenzhou spacecrafts are classified as cargo vessels. The craft’s name translates roughly into “magic boat” or “divine vessel of god”. When the craft was first put into use in 1999 by China it was an unmanned vessel. After several successful unmanned missions, Astronaut Yang Liwei achieved the first successful manned mission October 15, 2003, completing 14 orbits around Earth within 21 hours.

The 2 manned missions that followed also reported back the strange noises. Could this be why the 2011 mission was unmanned except for 2 test dummies? In 2012 manned missions resumed with a 3-person crew delivered to China’s Tiangong-1 space station in 2012, 2013 and a final mission in 2016 delivering crewmembers to China’s Tiangong-2 space station. One more mission is slated for 2018 but no details are yet available on whether it will be manned or not.

The spaceship’s technology has roots in Russia’s Soyuz technology. The modified Chinese version features 3 modules. Upon returning to Earth, only one module, the re-entry module, makes the return trip. That means that 2 modules, the orbital and service modules, do not have the same bulky heat shielding as the re-entry module.

The orbital module is constructed of aluminum. This is where the crew spends most of their time. If a piece of space debris came into contact with the outside of the module, it would probably make quite a noise.

But would a piece of debris make a single contact noise or might it bump around the perimeter of the craft a few times until it went on its merry way? Would a tiny bit of space junk, too small to see out a porthole make a noise as loud as Liwie described? Could the spacecraft survive an impact with a small piece of space debris? How likely is it that this is the source of the noise? Yes, the gringa is filled with questions.

NASA estimates more than half a million bits of space junk are floating around Earth. They can travel as fast as 17,500 mph. Even a pebble-sized bit of debris can wreak havoc and cause quite a bit of damage. Check out this picture provided by the European Space Agency (ESA). A solar array on satellite Sentinel-1A took a hit from a tiny bit of space junk (about a 1 millimeter bit) and it punched an enormous hole in one of the solar panels. The size of the damage was about 100 times the size of the junk that hit it.

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In 2014, just 6 years after the last Shenzhou mission with a crewmember reporting the strange knocking noises, an important book was published. In “Forging China’s Military Might” much of the material discusses the nation’s space program. It is proposed that spacecraft design should feature a “bumper” to absorb meteor and space junk impacts. Proving the point that even micro-debris can be deadly, the author points to the Space Shuttle Challenger 7 mission. A tiny fragment of debris, and when the gringa says tiny, she means tiny, the debris was a FLECK OF PAINT… it caused so much damage the entire window had to be replaced.

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So, did Liwie hear an ET knocking on his spaceship door? Probably not. It’s more likely that it was a bit of cosmic rubble knocking about.
Sources: NASA

QZ.com

Spaceflight 101

People

Physics-Astronomy.com

Image Credits:  VOA News

QZ.com

Video Credit:  Paparazzi News

An Order Of Milky Way Sunny Side Up


What has the gringa shared so far about what she knows regarding dark matter?

“There is no physical evidence that it exists, only a theory based on a mathematical formula to explain phenomena detected by gravitational lensing that suggests that objects with mass exist as determined by gravitational effects on visible celestial bodies yet the matter causing the gravitational effect cannot be seen by the naked eye.”

Until now. Kinda sort of.

Scientists estimate that about 25% of our universe consists of dark matter. That’s quite a bit of stuff out there that we have no idea, really, where it is, what it’s purpose is, what it’s doing, or what it looks like.
Some scientists believe that there are dark matter superstructures that act as connective tissue between galaxies. The gringa wonders if that means that the universe can get arthritis? But I digress. Back to the real stuff. Does this composite image prove the connective tissue theory to be true? Do we now know where dark matter exists and what its purpose is?

Since dark matter is kind of like a space ghost, neither reflecting or absorbing light, it’s impossible to see it. Maybe. Scientists may have devised a means to create an image using the same technology for detecting it: gravitational lensing.

This new discovery may be dark matter’s incognito existence Waterloo, literally. You see, it’s a former grad student from Canada’s University of Waterloo who has developed the technique to create an image of dark matter. As gravitational lensing displays the warping effect of dark matter on distant galaxies, images from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope captures images while it surveys the skies. From these images 23,000 pairs of galaxies were selected to create a composite image of dark matter.

In the feature image you see the white circles that represent two galaxies. You see all that red stuff surrounding them? Yep. That’s the connective tissue of dark matter. So, basically the Milky Way is like an egg yolk with a partner galaxy connected to it by dark matter. Next time you order a breakfast of 2 eggs sunny side up, just think of the great cosmic breakfast entrée where you live.

Source & Image Credit: Phys.org
Video Credit: United News International