Evolution & Climate Change


(Originally posted 3/9/17 on Read With The Gringa)

Climate change, now, more than ever, is quite a hot topic, pardon the pun, if you will. Some people think we shouldn’t be so grave and serious about the contributions mankind’s industrialization makes to the Earth’s carbon budget. Climate change naysayers say concerned scientists are simply trying to rally support to fund their research with fear-mongering tactics. They claim that well-meaning citizens are responding with emotions rather than really examining the facts. They claim that the Earth goes through climate change cycles on a regular basis. They say this is just the normal way of nature. They also claim that pollution is really not that big of a deal because the Earth, like any living organism, is capable of adaptation as a survival instinct. This would mean that the Earth would simply “clean herself up”. 


Is such a perspective true? To find out let’s take a look at one of the all-time worst environmental disasters, the Chernobyl nuclear reactor disaster. It’s been 30 years since a Ukrainian nuclear plant melted down and contaminated a 1,000 square mile area in Eastern Europe with high levels of deadly radiation. Medical experts and scientists expect it will be close to 20,000 years before humans can safely inhabit the area. Journalists and researchers can only visit for very brief periods or else risk exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Yet, still, hundreds of people, mostly old folks who are unable or unwilling to relocate, survive in nearby villages, although there are very high rates of deadly forms of cancer. 


But what about the local flora and fauna? How well has the Earth done at surviving and cleaning itself up? How is nature faring in that neck of the polluted woods? Is it a wasteland of scorched earth and fried animal remains? Are there glowing rabbits and three-headed wolverines? Have talking plants begun to grow?


Well, within the most immediate radius of the nuclear plant’s site, about 10-15 miles out, it is considered by scientists to be a “clean zone”. No, that doesn’t mean it’s clean of pollution or ill effects. It means clean of practically all life as we know it. But go a bit further and you find a radioactive region teeming with wildlife who is enjoying life unmolested in an area uninhabited by man. 


You may have always wondered if the joke about cockroaches being the only thing to survive a nuclear holocaust is true. It is. In fact, insects seem to have superpowers when it comes to radioactive disasters. And because the bugs survive and thrive, the birds do as well! And so on, and so on down the wildlife food chain. Mankind may one day disappear, leaving behind the bugs and birds and mammals to rule the world.


However, judging from the spider-webs, it seems that bugs may suffer cognitively. Webs of affected spiders show erratic patterns that deviate significantly from their uncontaminated counterparts. So, a post-climate change world bereft of man, may be overrun by insane insects, mutant birds and an abundance of fat mammals.


Wolves have always been synonymous with Eastern Europe. That is probably why they were selected to be studied by biologists to see what their radioactive survival story is. What has been discovered is that wolves are thriving. That can only mean there are plenty of other large and medium sized mammals for them to prey upon. Wild Przewalski’s horses are recovering even though they are considered a rare and endangered species. Beavers are happily gnawing away at the wild forest growth. Bears forage happily and wolves are always looking on for an opportunity at a good meal.


Researchers are recording things like high rates of cataracts, higher occurrences of albinism, and curious physical mutations. However, despite these ill effects, the overall report from scientists and researchers is that, considering the devastation of a nuclear disaster, the wildlife actually seems to be rebounding and doing well. So well, in fact, that around Chernobyl a greater concentration of wolves can be found as compared to Yellowstone National Park!


What does that mean? Should we stop fussing about climate change? The gringa supposes we could if we don’t mind the humans of tomorrow looking very different than the humans of today. Here are some of the theorized adaptations that might happen to humans who evolve in order to survive the rising temperatures of climate change and effects of more solar radiation trapped within our atmosphere:

  • We get shorter and skinnier. Decreasing mass while maximizing surface area makes us more efficient at venting heat.
  • Our eyes grow larger because we become nocturnal, active during the cooler period when the sun is down.
  • Babies have lower birth weight because we engage in less exercise thus require fewer calories.

If the world is over-radiated, humans will need to avoid contamination. They have to avoid more than just exposure to invisible radiation in the air. Radiation is also passed through the food chain. That means more than just avoiding eating vegetables that have grown in over-radiated soil. It also means not eating any meat from an animal that may have fed upon animals or plants that were contaminated somewhere along their own natural food chain. This limitation on the human diet would contract our dietary options which would also result in a “skinnification” of mankind.

Funny thing is the gringa is already pretty skinny and does have rather large eyes. Maybe it’s already happening and the gringa is well on her way to transforming into a new human species! Our generation could be what scientists call, thousands of years from now, the “missing link” or a “bridge species” between the humans of yesterday and the humans of tomorrow!


Sources & Video Credit: 


National Geographic


New York Times


The Atlantic


Mental Floss

Documentary/Documentaries HD


Image Credit: NBC News

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Soil, Water & Pure Air


(Originally posted 3/7/17 on Read With The Gringa)


The gringa proudly considers herself a treehugger. As a female treehugger, I can count myself among legendary treehugging heroes. Have you ever heard about the the Chipko movement? It is a group of women from India who have been protecting the forests of their native country from deforestation since the 1970s. They link their efforts to an ancient Indian legend about a courageous young girl named Amrita Devi. First, the gringa will tell the dear readers the legend and then you’ll find out about the Chipkos.


Long, long ago, before there was Internet, a Maharajah sent his tree cutters to chop down the trees surrounding a small village. He must have needed lots of furniture, houdahs (saddles for elephants), and firewood. Amrita knew that her family, including her old, beloved grandmother, would die from hunger and cold if they had no firewood. She rushed out and wrapped her arms around a tree, refusing to let the woodcutters chop it down. 


Now, here is where the story really gets interesting. If you have a person like the gringa telling the story, you hear a fantastic ending where Amrita prevails, saves the forest and is rewarded by the Maharaja for her bravery, wisdom and loyalty to family. However, if the caveman gets to butt in and tell the ending, he will say that Amrita got her head chopped off by the woodcutters axe when they went ahead and felled the tree. But, she became a martyr and her village revolted and refused to let any more trees get cut down, setting aside a lovely little grove in her honor where her body and head were buried. The dear reader can pick their own ending.


As for the Chipko, regardless of the ending of the story, they are still inspired by Amrita’s story. In the 1970s these rural village gals made their own brave stand and took their place in history and created a lasting legacy. You see, in the 1960s India was blazing a trail of economic development that meant massive deforestation that the government called progress. Although burgeoning city and industrial growth may have been welcomed by many, for those whose lives were wrapped up in the harmony of life in the forests, subsisting on the crops they planted and the natural resources that surrounded them, such progress was devastating.


For rural communities progress meant crops were ruined, homes torn down, erosion destroyed farmland and flooding ensued. Basically, as centuries-old Himalayan forests were cut down, the culture and and environment supported by these forests disentegrated. Many of these villagers pushed further up mountainsides looking for fuel, water, clearings to plant crops, and materials to construct new homes. 


Finally, like most strong women, many of these matriarchs had had enough. They began engaging in “Chipko”. This is a Hindi word which means “to cling to”. The Chipkos would literally hug trees, refusing to let go so they could be chopped down. The official origins of this method of protest is recorded in a 1973 incident. A contractor had been dispatched to bring down 3,000 trees that were allotted for construction of a sporting goods store. Much of the surrounding area was already barren from prior deforestation efforts. 


When the woodcutters arrived, women began sounding the alarm throughout the village. The gal who was considered their leader was a widow in her 50s. She mustered 27 other women to her side and they rushed out to face off with the woodcutters. At first their brave leader tried to plead with the contractor. Then she attempted to reason with him and educate him on the consequences of deforestation. The response was insult and abuse from the contractor and his crew. 


The women channeled their inner Amritas and flung their arms around the trees and vowed to die before letting go. The men were so taken aback by their actions they surrendered their efforts and returned to the sporting goods jobsite empty-handed. So much for sneakers for everyone!


As the movement proved effective, it grew. New ideas were also integrated into the Chipko’s practices. A cultural practice that symbolized brother-sister relationships was put to good use, tying sacred threads around trees marked with the wood-choppers symbol for its future fate. Crewmen would understand those threads as meaning Chipkos were willing to die on behalf of that tree.


In 1987 the Chipko movement was honored with what might be considered by many a recognition as meaningful as a Nobel Peace Prize. For being a small women’s movement with the purpose of saving trees, the women were given the “Right to Livelihood Award” honoring the many moratoriums and battles won to save a precious natural resource. 

The gringa will close with a Chipko folk song:

The contractor says, “You foolish women, do you know what these forest bear?Resin, timber, and therefore foreign exchange!”

The women answer, “Yes, we know. What do these forests bear?Soil, water, and pure air. Soil, water, and pure air.”


Source & Image Credit: Women In World History

Video Credit: DD News

Superhero Footwear


Most superheroes wear cool boots; Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman. Well, maybe Spiderman doesn’t because he has to have that sticky, spidey, foot-action to climb buildings. But, still, Superheroes have to have super footwear to help them out in a pinch when they need to fight the bad guys. In today’s world, what kind of shoes might Superheroes wear? After all, the kind of Superhero we really need is one who can save the entire planet. Would they wear renewable bamboo boots? Sustainably sourced soy slippers?

How far are you willing to go to help the planet? The gringa is willing to do lots of stuff. Innovative companies are making it easier than ever for climate conscious individuals to make better lifestyle choices. It’s all well and good to manage your thermostat better and reduce your water waste. For urban dwellers hopping a bus or a bike is a viable option. It’s easy to stock a pantry, cupboard and frig with ethically sourced proteins, veggie and fruit. But there are some lifestyle areas where it is hard to find eco-friendly options. Or, at least eco-friendly options you are actually willing to live with.

Take clothes. The gringa simply hates organic fabrics. I must admit that I prefer the carefree nature of rayons and nylons and all those other “on” fabrics that are wash and wear. I know that the process for manufacturing these fabrics is not exactly environmentally friendly. But can’t I skate on the fact that I don’t use the dryer or iron? At least I’m saving loads of electricity in maintaining my man-made wardrobe. So, the gringa is stuck with the stalemate of a reasonable compromise here. And then there’s my shoes.

Living in the gulf coast region of Texas means the gringa’s closet is filled with snazzy sandals and lightweight slip-on shoes. Wonder Woman boots, not so much. It’s very hard for the gringa to find any sort of realistic option when it comes to Superhero ethical footwear. I don’t just have the environment to consider. In high school I had reconstructive surgery on my left foot. My right foot had some issues that could have used correction but after the torturous recovery of my first surgery I would have to be wheelchair bound before I opt for another, that’s for sure.

So, I have very strange, mis-matched feet. Both are very, very wide. You could just say oddball duck feet and the gringa would whole-heartedly agree. My left foot is also extremely sensitive to the touch, my incision scars being perpetually tingly. That means all of my shoes have to be incredibly soft and flexible. Preferably flip-flops. But flip-flops don’t meet the dress code of every occasion. And it’s hard to find shoes that match my needs, are cute, AND environmentally ethical. It just seemed impossible to be a well-shod planetary Superhero. Until now.

Rothy’s is a San Francisco start-up that is introducing the world to cute little shoes made from recycled water bottles. The gringa just LOVES this idea. Right now they only have ladies flats but they expect to introduce more designs. And, rather than contribute to the problem of too much waste, as these designs develop, they will not be stocking shelves in retail centers and warehouses. Instead, they will be made on-demand. This also eliminates that pesky fashion problem of unwanted leftovers when fashion season cycles render a certain style obsolete.

It takes about two weeks to convert three plastic water bottles into a petite ballet slipper. The plastic is ground-up then “combed” into soft filament fibers. These fibers are then processed through a 3D-knitting process to create a seamless, waste-free shoe in about 6 minutes. The only other thing used in the process is recycled foam for the insole. And it truly is waste-free because when a gal is through with it, the shoe can be completely recycled! I mean, just look at that cuteness!

home-about-right-two.jpg

This is such wonderful news! Although environmentally conscious individuals can reduce their use of water bottles, the reality is that they are still a big seller. In the gringa’s home we use a water-filter pitcher. However, when we travel or stop for a bite to eat, we still depend widely on water bottle consumption. Whether we like it or not, water bottles are here to stay.

The U.S. only recycles about 23% of its plastic waste. That means about 38 billion water bottles are destined for landfills every year. Despite the best efforts by environmental groups at awareness of the problem of waste caused by bottled water, it is still one of the most consumed beverages in the country.  So, if it’s unlikely to change consumer behavior, then a different approach to the waste must be the solution. And Rothy’s has nailed it! The worst environmental problem about bottled water has been solved!

Sources:

Rothy’s

Ban The Bottle

Tree Hugger

Image Credit: Deviant Art

Save A Tuna, Save The Oceans


(Originally posted 1/18/17 on Read With The Gringa)

Did you know that you don’t have to be a scientist or marine biologist to help our world’s oceans be healthier? Did you know that you can contribute to saving our planet by adjusting your menu and texting? Sounds crazy but the gringa is for real. Virtually everyone can play a role in making our ocean’s healthier.

First of all, change your protein menu. Take a look in your pantry. How many cans of tuna are in there? A 2016 industry report reported that 75% of tuna is destined for canneries. That little can of scrumptiousness that you love to use for delectable salad and sandwich fixin’s is seriously overfished. According to top conservation data, the remaining stock of tuna in our oceans is at serious risk. Does that really matter? I mean, there’s lots of other kinds of fish in the sea. So what if tuna disappears and becomes extinct. How much harm could that really do in the grand scheme of things?

Actually, too little tuna is a very bad thing, indeed, for the health of the oceans. They are not just commercially valuable, their value is even greater when left in their natural habitat to do what they are supposed to do. Tuna likes to migrate. They are the largest ranging fish in the sea. As they travel throughout the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, onward to the Eastern Pacific and through the Indian and Atlantic Oceans, they have important work today along their routes.

Their number one job is to eat other fish. They are at the top of the food chain. As for Bluefin Tuna, their size and speed means they have very few enemies. Except for humans, of course. Without tuna swimming about and doing their job of eating enormous amounts of herring, sardines, anchovies, mackerel, etc., these fish populations would explode. If they became out of control, devastating cascade effects would occur in the Atlantic Ocean, effects that could reach as far as the Mediterranean and Gulf of Mexico. The entire food chain of the world’s oceans would be out of whack.

So, just as the world needs balanced fish populations in the ocean, how about helping out by having a balance represented in the tins on your cupboard shelves? Instead of having half a dozen cans of tuna, how about two tins each of tuna, anchovies, and herrings? How easy is that?

As for monitoring your local harbor, beach, or even rivers and streams that eventually feed into the ocean, many conservation groups make it easy for everyone to play a part. Take, for example, the wild antics of the marine mammal protection group that serve on the Sea Shepherd. You can text them alerts of marine mammal trouble and receive updates on their activities.

Students at Duke University have created their own textbook devoted to ocean conservation. The information is primarily for awareness and education purposes. Sharing this information, however, is the first step any person must take in order to become an ocean hero. So why not download The View From Below and become an ocean conservation activist simply by texting and sharing?

If you are serious about getting involved, here are some mobile apps that can really let you get your feet wet with marine conservation:

  • California Tidepools: Recreational users have access to a database to raise awareness about tidepool marine life.
  • Marine Debris Tracker: Report trash along any coastline or waterway.
  • Whale Alert: If you see the critically endangered North Atlantic right whale, alert mariners so they can avoid the possibility of a collision.

So, the gringa has given you your mission and your marching orders:

  • Mission:  Save the world’s oceans.
  • Orders:  #1. Adjust the inventory of your pantry. #2. Get connected.

Now, carry on!

Sources:

Conservation Magazine

Pew Trusts

www.conservation.org

Marine Stewardship Council

National Geographic

Sea Shepherd

Duke University

California Tidepools

Marine Debris

Whale Alert

Image Credit:  National Geographic

Thanks For Nothing, Space Aliens


Fellow Earthlings, the gringa’s afraid we have not passed inspection by ETs. According to the opinion of learned astrophysicist Neil DeGrasse Tyson, apparently we are just too dumb to be bothered with.  The gringa’s not sure how she feels about all of this. I mean, I have lots of questions. But before I get to all of my typical “what if’s” and “why’s”, let’s see what Tyson had to say in his recent interview with MSNBC.  The gringa, will, of course, paraphrase in her own barrio vernacular:

  • We may be smart by human standards but not so much according to advanced space alien standards.
  • Their opinion of us was so low they determined we weren’t worth the trouble to contact.
  • So, basically, intelligent beings from outer space have probably performed a fly-by and said to themselves, “Eh, why bother. Moving along, moving along.”
  • In addition to our ignorance is our arrogance that convinces us that we are quite intelligent so space aliens should just be dying to be our friends.
  • The reality is that we are youngsters in the Universe and have probably already received messages from older and wiser aliens that we were too stupid to understand.
  • We have also been irresponsible with our intelligence and technology, accidentally sending out signals that painted us as imbeciles with early television broadcasts like Howdy-Doody and I Love Lucy. Yep, what a great first impression that must have made!

Now, the gringa doesn’t argue with the fact that alien civilizations are probably much older and wiser than us. If they are able to perform a fly-by of Earth, they are also much more advanced. The gringa also does not doubt that we have probably been a terrible disappointment what with our wars, destruction of the environment and little regard to less powerful global co-inhabitants whether they be human or animal. The gringa also shamefacedly admits that humans are incredibly arrogant and often believe that they are the end-all of sophistication and technological advances despite the fact that we must surely be minimally advanced compared to our Universe counterparts. However, the gringa had hoped that our arrogance would not have been matched by the arrogance of an alien species who would have believed our worth was only in our intelligence. What about our potential?

Surely the discovery of any living, breathing, sentient, intelligent species is worth more than a casual observance as you fly-by. The gringa is reminded of the family vacation from hell when my father was intent on barreling his way across the country to see Mount St. Helen’s as it was erupting. He was a geologist who was madly obsessed with witnessing this event. He performed numerous drive-by’s along the way much in the manner I expect the aliens have: “There’s the Grand Canyon, girls!” he yells over his shoulder as we peer out our windows looking at, well, really nothing as we zoom past. All we could see in the distance were the rugged highlands surrounding the massive chasm. It was the same as we passed by Lake Tahoe. I slept, I think, through the entire passage through the Rockies, bored out of my mind I presume.

Surely after traveling vast cosmic distances, perhaps through multiple galaxies, maybe even originating from another Universe, we were worth more than a shrug as they passed over Earth’s atmosphere. The nerve, I mean. Couldn’t they see that, although there may be plenty of ignoramuses and jerks down here, there are also loads of people with fabulous potential for intelligent humility, goodness, kindness and a desire to grow in knowledge and put that knowledge to good use benefitting others? Can’t they see the battles being waged to save our planet? We could use a little help, ya know!

Besides that, aren’t they just the least little bit lonely? I mean, when the gringa walks out beneath a star-lit sky and considers the vastness of space and how we are so alone out here, surely for any species to discover another would inspire a sense of comfort and relief. Aren’t they even the least bit curious? Aren’t we even worth a poke and a prod?

The more the gringa thinks about it, the more incensed I become. How dare them think that we are not worth knowing, much less saving. Once I was willing to hop on board if given the invitation. Now, however, I think I will offer them a shrug of indifference if the invitation comes my way. The gringa is filled with the noble spirit of the captain of a ship. Maybe some of my passengers are nothing but a big, destructive pain in Earth’s proverbial hindquarters. But they are still MY fellow passengers. You can either help me save this ship or move along. I, however, will go down fighting and clinging to life, trying to save those who appreciate my efforts as well as those who obviously don’t deserve them. THAT’S the very best of being human.

 

Sources:  Tech Times

Huffington Post

Business Insider

Image Credit: www.ascensionearth2012.org

Life Before Oxygen


The gringa would like to share an interesting timeline of the earliest Earth events. Now, ancient history might seem boring but the gringa discovered a very peculiar fact she had never thought about before. There was life on Earth before there was even oxygen! How in the world is that possible? Well, think about it. In order for biological life as we know it to exist on Earth, oxygen must be the second most plentiful  gas in the atmosphere.  In general, the air we breathe is about:

  • 78% Nitrogen
  • 21% Oxygen
  • Less than 1% Argon
  • Less than 1% Carbon Dioxide

To create this winning oxygenated atmospheric recipe on ancient Earth, trees had to be photosynthesizing. But there was stuff living here long before there were trees! How the heck did it survive? Well, let’s look at the timeline first:

  • 4.5 billion years ago (or thereabouts) Earth comes into existence
  • 3.5 billion years ago (or thereabouts) microbes are living on Earth
  • 2.5 billion years ago (or thereabouts) sulfur-eating bacteria is living on Earth
  • 530 million years ago (or thereabouts) fish are living on Earth
  • 400 million years ago (or thereabouts) trees emerged on Earth
  • 230 million years ago (or thereabouts) dinosaurs are living on Earth

So, the gringa wants to know how the heck microbes, bacteria and fish were surviving on an Earth that had, compared to today’s atmospheric standards, a virtually zero oxygen environment. Scientists believe that early Earth’s atmosphere consisted of methane, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide and ammonia.  Earth’s earliest microbes lived in the sediments below the shallows of the planet’s oceans shorelines. They fed and breathed on the sulfur in the atmosphere.  As they absorbed sunlight for energy, they became the first life form to contribute oxygen to the atmosphere through the process of photosynthesis. But shoreline colonies of microbes could by no means contribute oxygen on the same level as vast forests. So oxygen was basically a trace atmospheric gas at this time.

Ancient bacteria ate sulfur and converted hydrogen sulfide into sulfate, which is oxidized sulfur.  Cyanobacteria, commonly called blue-green algae, began to proliferate and also performed a photosynthesis function adding oxygen to the planet’s oceans and atmosphere.

As microbes and bacteria died, they received a burial at sea. Their decomposition also contributed more oxygen to the waters. As the world’s oceans began to become more oxygenated, fish started making their appearance during the Cambrian era. They were typically invertebrate species like jellyfish, worms, crustaceans and molluscs.

Jellyfish diffuse oxygen through their cells. Giant tube worms, that still live in our oceans near underwater volcanic vents, an inhospitable environment for most carbon based life, have a special organ to convert carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide into oxygen. Today’s molluscs have a respiratory system that uses gills, just like fish.

And from these strange beginnings, it has been a slow evolutionary crawl to the world we know today. The gringa is amazed. We all owe our lives to the humble microbe and smelly sulfur. Fascinating. But where did microbes come from? Did they simply just “appear” out of thin air? Could they have originated from another planet, arriving here by accident or delivered on purpose by ancestral aliens? Let’s look at planets that had similar atmosphere’s to early Earth, which would have then naturally been a likely choice for microbes looking for a new home:

  • Venus has an atmosphere enveloped by sulfuric clouds.
  • Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus & Neptune all have methane and ammonia in their atmospheres, as does Saturn’s moon, Titan
  • Pluto has an atmosphere dominated by carbon monoxide
  • The atmosphere of Mars is 96% carbon dioxide but also has ammonia and hydrogen sulfide

So, the gringa thinks it’s possible that the ancestral microbes we humans evolved from may have originated from outer space. But, over time, a life form evolved that can never naturally survive on the planet of its origins. So much for a homecoming party!

Sources:

www.livescience.com/earliest fossils

www.space.com

forestry.about.com

www.livescience.com/dinosaurs

www.astrobio.net/early atmosphere

www.astrobio.net/oxygen

www2.astro.psu.edu

www.reference.com

www.seasky.org

mollusks.weebly.com

Image Credit:  riaus.tv

 

 

The Earth v. Theia Smackdown


In just a few days, November 14, the Moon is going to be a Supermoon. There are lots of opportunities to see a Supermoon but the super-super-super-ness of this particular Supermoon won’t happen again for 70 years. What better time to pen a post that explains just how our Moon ended up in the orbit it’s in around our pretty, blue planet? You see, despite the fact that we are all accustomed to that big, gray rock circling us every day, how it got there to begin with is actually a mystery. Earth and her moon have not always been a couple.

Scientists think that Earth had a major smackdown with a protoplanet millions of years ago that resulted in it becoming our Moon. A protoplanet is a large body orbiting around a sun, or star, that eventually develops into a regular planet. In other words, it’s a hunk of rock that eventually transforms into creating its own motion that affects the events and natural environment of its surface. So, although the Moon has its own motion, it is controlled by the Earth’s gravity. Interestingly, although the Moon is not yet a planet in its own right, it does affect environmental events on Earth, our ocean tides.

But the gringa has gotten sidetracked. Back to just where the heck the Moon came from. So, a protoplanet slams into Earth yet is not obliterated. Researchers suspect that for a hunk of rock to survive such a collision it would have had to have originated from a protoplanet the size of Mars. Scientists have named this theoretical Moon-producing protoplanet Theia. Here’s a picture of Earth next to Mars and Mars next to the Moon. Picture the middle guy slamming into the big guy and ending up the little guy.

compareemm

 

Now, the gringa wants to know that if this is how it happened, how did the Moon become so perfectly round? I don’t know about you, but whenever I have seen any rock get pulverized, I don’t find any fragments that are spherical. So, the gringa takes her skepticism further. What kind of rock is the Moon?

Well, the Moon actually consists of geological material that can be found on Earth. What this means is that an impact theory between Earth and Theia doesn’t really make sense. The Moon would then consist of Earth stuff and foreign Theia stuff. But, the Moon’s just made of Earth stuff.

Another thing that keeps scientists scratching their heads about the Earth-Theia impact theory is where the Moon is. If it was a piece of space debris from an impact, the Moon should orbit around Earth’s equator. Instead, it orbits elliptically at a tilt, five degrees off our equator.

Scientist Sarah Stewart at the University of California thinks she has solved these problems. She theorizes that:

  • Number one, the clash between Earth & Theia involved much more energy than previously thought.
  • This caused the Earth to spin like crazy, much faster than it does now.
  • Some of the debris was vaporized, meaning melted Earth material fused with Theia and Theia material fused with Earth. The Earth and Moon are actually mixed together. So, when it seems that the Moon is only comprised of Earth materials, in a way that’s true but yet not all true. The Earth and the Moon are BOTH made up of Earth & Theia stuff.
  • When the collision first happened, causing the Earth to spin wildly, our axis pointed right at the Sun and we only had a 2 hour day.
  • As Theia a.k.a. the Moon stabilized in its orbit around the Earth equator, its affect was to gradually slow the rapid spinning of the Earth by affecting the tidal movements of the oceans.
  • As the Earth slowed down the Earth’s axis also shifted which caused Theia a.k.a. the Moon to no longer orbit around our equator.

Now, it would have taken more than 10 million years for all of this to happen. But, it all makes perfect sense to the gringa. Except for the round bit. Why is there not a big dent still visible in the Earth and the Moon? And despite the fact that I really like the name Theia, I don’t have any plans to call the Moon anything other than the Moon.

Source:

www.ibtimes.co.uk

Image Credit: www.space.com

www.digipac.ca